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Written Talaq

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DarulIftaBirmingham
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Answered by Ustadha Umm Abdullah


Question:


I have a question regarding divorce. If the wife threatens the husband of committing suicide, repeatedly, and finally the situation becomes such that he is away from home and she tells him on phone that she wants divorce or she is going to kill herself, the husband has constantly been avoiding divorce and has no intention, and then the phone dies.

The husband is completely perplexed and sms’s the wife that he gives her three talaqs.

When the wife switches on the phone she reads the text.

The husband says he had absolutely no intention and was only doing this to prevent the wife form committing suicide. He is also very clear that when he typed “I give you talaq all three”, he did not intend the wife by the “you” as he desperately wanted to prevent talaq and also to save his wife’s life.


Will the talaq be valid? All three or one?


Answer:


Bismillah


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


There are two types of written divorce:


  1. Marsumah: To clearly address the wife of divorce with written words

  2. Ghair Marsumah: Where the words of divorce are not addressed to his wife.


When the writing is unclear, divorce will not occur, irrespective of whether it is marsumah or ghair marsumah or whether he made an intention or not.


If the writing is clear, but is not directed to the wife, talaq will occur only if he made the intention. However, If the writing is clear and also directed to his wife, talaq will occur irrespective of whether he made the intention or not.


With regards to your situation, when the husband texted his wife with words of divorce, the message sent to her became marsumah (addressed to her). Hence, the divorce came into effect and will be valid whether or not he had the intention. [1]


The statement “I give you talaq all three” causes three talaq to occur. When three talaq have been issued, the husband and wife must separate immediately and the woman must observe iddat (waiting period). [Iddat is three menstrual cycles or three months if the wife does not experience menses] [2]


Only Allah Ta’ala knows best


Ustadha Umm Abdullah


Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah


Darul Ifta Birmingham


[1]


كتب الطلاق، وإن مستبينا على نحو لوح وقع إن نوى، وقيل مطلقا، ولو على نحو الماء فلا مطلقا. ولو كتب على وجه الرسالة والخطاب، كأن يكتب يا فلانة: إذا أتاك كتابي هذا فأنت طالق طلقت بوصول الكتاب جوهرة


)قوله كتب الطلاق إلخ) قال في الهندية: الكتابة على نوعين: مرسومة وغير مرسومة، ونعني بالمرسومة أن يكون مصدرا ومعنونا مثل ما يكتب إلى الغائب. وغير المرسومة أن لا يكون مصدرا ومعنونا، وهو على وجهين: مستبينة وغير مستبينة، فالمستبينة ما يكتب على الصحيفة والحائط والأرض على وجه يمكن فهمه وقراءته. وغير المستبينة ما يكتب على الهواء والماء وشيء لا يمكنه فهمه وقراءته. ففي غير المستبينة لا يقع الطلاق وإن نوى، وإن كانت مستبينة لكنها غير مرسومة إن نوى الطلاق وإلا لا، وإن كانت مرسومة يقع الطلاق نوى أو لم ينو ثم المرسومة لا تخلو إما أن أرسل الطلاق بأن كتب: أما بعد فأنت طالق، فكما كتب هذا يقع الطلاق وتلزمها العدة من وقت الكتابة


حاشية رد المحتار علي الدر المختار ج ٣/ ص٢٤٦


[2]


)والطلاق يقع بعدد قرن به لا به) نفسه عن ذكر العدد


)قوله والطلاق يقع بعدد قرن به لا به) أي متى قرن الطلاق بالعدد كان الوقوع بالعدد بدليل ما أجمعوا عليه من أنه لو قال لغير المدخول بها أنت طالق ثلاثا طلقت ثلاثا


حاشية رد المحتار علي الدر المختار ج ٣/ ص٢٨٧


This answer was collected from DarulIftaBirmingham.co.uk, which is run under the supervision of Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah from the United Kingdom.

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