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Kaffara for breaking oath

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by ShariahBoard.org

Assalamualaikum, 

When I was in high school I didn’t realize the consequences of breaking oaths. I estimate that I sincerely swore and thereafter broke 6-8 qasams and I need to know how much money in cash would I be allowed to pay in total. 

In the past, I heard that you can pay the kaffara with cash to the poor so I took around $30 per each oath I broke and put it in the donation box for the needy in my masjid. I don’t know if this counts as kaffara or not. 

I want to know the value in cash that I would have to pay that is the equivalent of 10 meals that I would have to give to the needy  or the amount in US dollars I would have to pay for every qasam I broke.

الجواب وباللہ التوفیق

  1. If you have broken the oaths after puberty then the Kaffarah will be mandatory otherwise not.
  2. One Kaffarah is mandatory for each broken oath.
  3. The Kaffarah for one oath is to free a slave. Evidently there is no way at this time and age to pay the Kaffarah in this form. Therefore, either ten poor persons should be fed to their fill for two times or its cost should be given, or one dress should be made for ten poor persons. If one does not have the capacity to do this then one should fast for three consecutive days.
  4. To pay the Kaffarah a poor person should be given amount equal to one Sadaqah e Fitr which in current weights amounts to 1 kilo, 574 gram, and 640 milligram wheat. Accordingly the estimated weight comes to 15 kilo, 75 grams wheat. You should find out how much does this cost in dollars that is the amount for one Kaffarah.
  5. If the dollar amount is given in Kaffarah then it is necessary to give wheat equal to one Sadaqah e Fitr to one poor person or its price and it is not correct to give the dollar amount of all these Kaffarahs in one day. Either the money should be given to ten poor persons or to one poor person in ten separate days then the Kaffarah would be paid otherwise not.
  6. Kaffarah does not get paid by putting the Kaffarah money in the Masjid donation box, it is necessary to pay it again.

لَا یُؤَاخِذُکُمُ اللّٰہُ بِاللّٰغْوِ فِیْ اَیْمَانِکُمْ وَلَکِنْ یُؤَاخِذُکُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمُ الْاَیْمَانَ فَکَفَّارَتُہُ اِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاکِیْنَ مِنْ اَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُوْنَ اَہْلِیْکُمْ اَوْ کِسْوَتُہُمْ اَوْ تَحْرِیْرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ یَجِدْ فَصِیَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ اَیَّامٍ ذٰلِکَ کَفَّارَةُ اَیْمَانِکُمْ اِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ (مائدہ: ۸۹)

وَإِذَا غَدَّى مِسْكِينًا وَعَشَّى غَيْرَهُ عَشَرَةَ أَيَّامٍ لَمْ يُجْزِهِ لِأَنَّهُ فَرَّقَ طَعَامَ الْعَشَرَةِ عَلَى عِشْرِينَ، كَمَا إذَا فَرَّقَ حِصَّةَ الْمِسْكِينِ عَلَى مِسْكِينَيْنِ، وَلَوْ غَدَّى مِسْكِينًا وَأَعْطَاهُ قِيمَةَ الْعِشَاءِ أَجْزَأَهُ،

مَطْلَبُ كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ (قَوْلُهُ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ) لَمْ يَقُلْ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ وَرِثَ مَنْ يَعْتِقُ عَلَيْهِ فَنَوَى عَنْ الْكَفَّارَةِ لَمْ يَجُزْ نَهْرٌ (قَوْلُهُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ) أَيْ تَحْقِيقًا أَوْ تَقْدِيرًا، حَتَّى لَوْ أَعْطَى مِسْكَيْنَا وَاحِدًا فِي عَشَرَةِ أَيَّامٍ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ نِصْفَ صَاعٍ يَجُوزُ، وَلَوْ أَعْطَاهُ فِي يَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ بِدَفَعَاتٍ فِي عَشْرِ سَاعَاتٍ، قِيلَ يُجْزِئُ، وَقِيلَ لَا، وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ(رد الحتار:۳؟۶۰)

وَفِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْخُلَاصَةِ وَالتَّجْرِيدِ: وَتَتَعَدَّدُ الْكَفَّارَةُ لِتَعَدُّدِ الْيَمِينِ، وَالْمَجْلِسِ وَالْمَجَالِسِ سَوَاءٌ ۔(الدر المختار : ۳ ؍۷۱)

ثُمَّ اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْكَفَّارَاتِ كُلَّهَا لَا يَجُوزُ إعْطَاءُ فَقِيرٍ فِيهَا أَقَلَّ مِنْ نِصْفِ صَاعٍ(البحر:۴؟۱۱۷)

واللہ اعلم بالصواب

This answer was collected from Shariahboard.org. It was established under the supervision of the eminent faqih of our era, Hazrat Shah Mufti Mohammed Navalur Rahman damat barakatuhum.

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