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Keeping the Belief that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala Can Lie

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by ShariahBoard.org

Assalamualaikum,

Can you kindly provide your view on the following issue, is it correct to have the belief that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala has the power to lie but that He would not (as per Darul Ifta Birmingham and the website Tafseer Raheemi – see below)?

Darul Ifta Birmingham:
http://daruliftabirmingham.co.uk/do-the-scholars-of-deoband-believe-that-allah-can-lie/

Tafseer Raheemi:
http://www.tafseer-raheemi.com/q630-do-ulemae-deoband-believe-that-allah-lies/

Thanks

Keeping the Belief that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala Can Lie

الجواب و باللہ التوفیق

The issue mentioned in your question is a pure literary one, engaging the general public in such discussion is nothing but a strive to deceive them and to generate hatred and ill will in their hearts for ulamah-e-haq (the righteous ulamah kiram). Fundamentally, the issue described in the question is not a point of conflict, rather the actual matter is about the extension of the power of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, but by distorting its real meanings and essence, a botched interpretation is spread among the general public, to spread dread, apprehension and hatred.

The real issue is whether Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala can send the non-believers and the polytheists to Jannah or not. It is obvious that it is in the power of Allah that if He wishes to send them to Jannah then he can, but He will not do it because it is our belief that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala is true in His promise and He will not go against His promise, and no one else’s statement could be more truthful than that of Allah.

ومن اصدق من اللّٰہ قیلا

Allah is free of and above lying and even the suspicion of lying. One who associates lying with Him is a non-believer.

Now the question arises that when Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala has the power to send some non-believer to Jannah then the possibility of Him going against His promise and the possibility of associating lying with Him arises. The Ulama then performed literary discussions on this topic and this issue remained under discussion among their predecessors too. The details of which are documented in books such as Sharah Maqasid, Sharah Mawaqif, Tafseer-e-Kabeer, Juhdul-Muqill and Al-Muhannad etc. Allamah Shami Rehmatullah ‘Aleh also prepared a detailed discourse on it, and the predominant point of view is that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala holds the power of lying however He is free of and above it. Because it is mentioned in the Quran:

انَّ اللّٰہَ عَلٰی کُلِّ شَیْءٍ قَدِیْرٌ

Translation: Surely, Allah is powerful to do anything.

Therefore, lying is also under the power of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, He is neither powerless nor incapable of it. If He would not have the power of it then He would be considered helpless (in only being capable of truth), and to be forced and being helpless is far away from the majesty of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala. In conclusion, it is one thing for an object to be bad and vile, while it is an entirely other thing for somoene to perform a vile act, the performance of a vile act is bad but to have the power to perform a vile act is not considered bad. Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala surely possesses the power over it but neither it has occurred by him nor it ever will occur, as having power over an act doesn’t necessitate the performance of that act.

Please review some Arabic references for the details mentioned above:

من یعتقد ویتفوہ بانہ تعالیٰ یکذب فہو کافر ملعون قطعاً ومخالف الکتاب والسنۃ واجماع الامۃ

(فتاویٰ رشید یہ ص۲۰۸، کتاب العقائد)

ان اللہ منزہ من ان یتصف بصفۃ الکذب ، ولیست فی کلامہ شائبۃ الکذب أبدا کما قال اللہ تعالیٰ : ’’ومن اصدق من اللہ قیلا

( المہند علی لمفند : ۵۴ / دارالاشاعت)

إن أمثال ھذہ الأشیاء مقدور قطعاً لکنہ غیر جائز الوقوع عند أھل السنة والجماعة من الأشاعرة

(المھند علی المفند: ص۵۹)

إن اللہ تعالی منزّہ من أن یتصف بصفة الکذب ولیست في کلامہ شائبة الکذب أبدا کما قال اللہ تعالی: وَمَنْ اَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰہِ قِیْلاً
(المھند علی المفند: ص۵۵)

المنکرون لشمول قدرتہ طوائف (الی قولہٖ)القائلون بانہ لایقدر علی الجہل والکذب والظلم (الی قولہٖ) والجواب لانسلم قبح الشئی بالنسبۃ الیہ (الی قولہٖ) ولوسلم فالقدرۃ علیہ لاتنافی امتناع صدورہ عنہ نظراً الی وجود الصارف وعدم الداعی وان کان ممکنا۔

(شرح مقاصد، ص۳/۷۵، الفصل الثالث فی الصفات الوجودیۃ)

ان عدم الوجوب مع الوقوع لایستلزم خلفاً ولاکذباً لایقال انہ یستلزم جواز ہما وہو ایضاً محال لانا نقول استحالتہ ممنوعۃ کیف وہما من الممکنات التی تشتملہا قدرتہ تعالیٰ

(شرح المواقف، ص۸/۷۲، مطبوعہ دارالکتب العلمیۃ بیروت)۔ التفسیر الکبیر ج۲؍ص۱۷؍ ج۳؍ص۴۷۰؍ ج۴؍ص۱۱۵؍ ج۶؍ص۳۴۹؍ تحت سورہ مائدہ)

ہل یجوز الخلف فی الوعید فظاہر مافی المواقف والمقاصد ان الاشاعرۃ قائلون بجوازہ شامی کراچی ج۱؍ص۵۲۲؍ والا شبہ ترجح جواز الخلف فی الوعید …………

(شامی :ج۱؍ص۵۲۳؍ باب صفۃ الصلاۃ، مطلب فی خلف الوعید )  

واللہ اعلم بالصواب

This answer was collected from Shariahboard.org. It was established under the supervision of the eminent faqih of our era, Hazrat Shah Mufti Mohammed Navalur Rahman damat barakatuhum.

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