IslamQA

Supererogatory Prayers Sitting without Excuse

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Qibla.com

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Growing up, I saw many women from my indo-pak culture perform their nafil prayers while sitting down. these women were not ill or elderly, it just seemed to be the “way” nafil prayers were performed in comparison to the sunnahs and the fards and the witrs. is this acceptable? i don’t see people here in America performing the nafil prayers this way (i.e. sitting down).

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Walaikum assalam,

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, and all blessings and peace upon our master Muhammad, his folk, companions and those who follow their noble way,

What those women do is permissible, yes, without blame. However, the reward for such prayers is half that of prayers performed standing unless there is a due excuse.

Imam al-Haskafi said in his Durr al-Mukhtar, a commentary on Imam al-Tumurtashi’s mastery text, Tanwir al-Absar, which is essentially an expanded version of Imam al-Nasafi’s Kanz al-Daqa’iq,

“(And one can perform supererogatory prayers sitting even when able to stand) though not on one’s side without due excuse (inititally and) also (during the prayer) after starting [f: i.e. one can sit down after having started standing], without any offensiveness according to the most correct opinion as in its opposite – Bahr [f: the 8-volume work in the derived rulings of the school, by Imam Ibn al-Nujaym, the 10th Century Egyptian Hanafi imam, a work that profoundly influenced all subsequent writings in Hanafi fiqh]. It says there [f: in Bahr] that the reward for other than the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) is half, unless there is an excuse.”

Ibn Abidin commented on his in his mubarak supercommentary, Radd al-Muhtar:

“(His saying: And one can perform supererogatory prayers sitting) That is, in other than the sunna of fajr, according to the most correct opinion. [f: Note, here, what is meant by supererogatory prayers is all non-fard and non-wajib prayers]…

(His saying: sitting) That is, in any way, and the difference is only in what is best. [f: The best is to sit as one sits for the tashahhud.]…

(His saying: the reward for other than the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace) is half, unless there is an excuse)

As the the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), it is from his unique matters that his supererogatory prayers sitting while able to stand are like those performed standing. In Sahih Muslim it is related from our master Abd Allah ibn `Amr that he said, “I have heard, of Messenger of Allah, that you said, ‘A man’s prayer sitting is half a prayer (in reward),’ and you pray sitting.” The Messenger said, “True. However, I am not like any of you.” … And because this was to indicate the legal permissibility of doing so, which was wajib (necessary) for him to do.

(His saying: Half, except if there is an excuse)

As for when there is an excuse, then there is no reduction in reward, because of the Prophetic hadith related by Imam al-Bukhari in the Book of Jihad, “If one is sick or travels, the like of that which he used to do while fit and resident is written for him (of deeds).” – from Fath al-Qadir [of Imam Kamal ibn al-Humam, the great 9th Century Hanafi mujtahid, whose students include Imam al-Suyuti, and whose mastery of fiqh, usul, hadith, and aqida is amazing].” [Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, Bab al-Witr wa’l Nawafil, Bulaq ed. 1.468]

May Allah bless our imams, the inheritors of His Beloved Messenger (Allah bless him & give him peace), and enable us to follow in their footsteps and act on their teachers, which are only an exposition of the Divine guidance of the Qur’an and Prophetic Sunna.

And Allah knows best.

Wassalam,

Faraz Rabbani   

 

قال سيِّدنا الإمام الحصكفي (رحمه الله) في الدرّ المختار:( وَيَتَنَفَّلُ مَعَ قُدْرَتِهِ عَلَى الْقِيَامِقَاعِدًا ) لَا مُضْطَجِعًا إلَّا بِعُذْرٍ ( ابْتِدَاءً وَ ) كَذَا ( بِنَاءً ) بَعْدَ الشُّرُوعِ بِلَا كَرَاهَةٍ  فِيالْأَصَحِّ كَعَكْسِهِ بَحْرٌ . وَفِيهِ أَجْرُ غَيْرِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى النِّصْفِ إلَّابِعُذْرٍ علّق عليه سيِّدنا محمد أمين ابن عابدين في حاشيته المباركة:( قَوْلُهُ وَيَتَنَفَّلُ إلَخْ )أَيْ فِي غَيْرِ سُنَّةِ الْفَجْرِ فِي الْأَصَحِّ كَمَا قَدَّمَهُ الْمُصَنِّفُ , بِخِلَافِ سُنَّةِ التَّرَاوِيحِ لِأَنَّهَادُونَهَا فِي التَّأَكُّدِ , فَتَصِحُّ قَاعِدًا وَإِنْ خَالَفَ الْمُتَوَارَثَ وَعَمَلَ السَّلَفِ كَمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ ,وَدَخَلَ فِيهِ النَّفَلُ الْمَنْذُورُ فَإِنَّهُ إذَا لَمْ يَنُصَّ عَلَى الْقِيَامِ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ الْقِيَامُ فِي الصَّحِيحِ ,كَمَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ . وَقَالَ فَخْرُ الْإِسْلَامِ : إنَّهُ الصَّحِيحُ مِنْ الْجَوَابِ , وَقِيلَ يَلْزَمُهُوَاخْتَارَهُ فِي الْفَتْحِ نَهَرٌ ( قَوْلُهُ قَاعِدًا ) أَيْ عَلَى أَيِّ حَالَةٍ كَانَتْ , وَإِنَّمَا الِاخْتِلَافُ فِيالْأَفْضَلِ كَمَا يَأْتِي . ( قَوْلُهُ لَا مُضْطَجِعًا ) وَكَذَا لَوْ شَرَعَ مُنْحَنِيًا قَرِيبًا مِنْ الرُّكُوعِ لَايَصِحُّ بَحْرٌ , وَمَا ذَكَرَهُ مِنْ عَدَمِ صِحَّةِ التَّنَفُّلِ مُضْطَجِعًا عِنْدَنَا بِدُونِ عُذْرٍ , نَقَلَهُ فِيالْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْأَكْمَلِ فِي شَرْحِهِ عَلَى الْمَشَارِقِ , وَصَرَّحَ بِهِ فِي النُّتَفِ . وَقَالَ الْكَمَالُ فِيالْفَتْحِ : لَا أَعْلَمُ الْجَوَازَ فِي مَذْهَبِنَا , وَإِنَّمَا يَسُوغُ فِي الْفَرْضِ حَالَةَ الْعَجْزِ عَنْ الْقُعُودِ ,لَكِنْ ذَكَرَ فِي الْإِمْدَادِ أَنَّ فِي الْمِعْرَاجِ إشَارَةً إلَى أَنَّ فِي الْجَوَازِ خِلَافًا عِنْدَنَا كَمَا عِنْدَالشَّافِعِيَّةِ . ( قَوْلُهُ ابْتِدَاءً وَبِنَاءً ) مَنْصُوبَانِ عَلَى الظَّرْفِيَّةِ الزَّمَانِيَّةِ لِنِيَابَتِهِمَا عَنْ الْوَقْتِ :أَيْ وَقْتَ ابْتِدَاءٍ وَوَقْتَ بِنَاءٍ ط . ( قَوْلُهُ فِي الْأَصَحِّ ) رَاجِعٌ إلَى قَوْلِهِ بِلَا كَرَاهَةٍ كَمَاعَلِمْته فَافْهَمْ . ( قَوْلُهُ أَجْرُ غَيْرِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ) أَمَّا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليهوسلم فَمِنْ خَصَائِصِهِ أَنَّ نَافِلَتَهُ قَاعِدًا مَعَ الْقُدْرَةِ عَلَى الْقِيَامِ كَنَافِلَتِهِ قَائِمًا ; فَفِيصَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ { عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قُلْت : حُدِّثْت يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَنَّك قُلْت : صَلَاةُالرَّجُلِ قَاعِدًا عَلَى نِصْفِ الصَّلَاةِ وَأَنْتَ تُصَلِّي قَاعِدًا , قَالَ : أَجَلْ , وَلَكِنِّي لَسْتكَأَحَدٍ مِنْكُمْ } ” بَحْرٌ مُلَخَّصًا : أَيْ لِأَنَّهُ تَشْرِيعٌ لِبَيَانِ الْجَوَازِ ; وَهُوَ وَاجِبٌ عَلَيْهِ . (قَوْلُهُ عَلَى النِّصْفِ إلَّا بِعُذْرٍ ) أَمَّا مَعَ الْعُذْرِ فَلَا يَنْقُصُ ثَوَابُهُ عَنْ ثَوَابِهِ قَائِمًا لِحَدِيثِالْبُخَارِيِّ فِي الْجِهَادِ { إذَا مَرِضَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ سَافَرَ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ مَا كَانَ يَعْمَلُ مُقِيمًاصَحِيحًا } ” فَتْحٌ . وَحَكَى فِي النِّهَايَةِ الْإِجْمَاعَ عَلَيْهِ . وَتَعَقَّبَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ بِحِكَايَةِالنَّوَوِيِّ عَنْ بَعْضِهِمْ أَنَّهُ عَلَى النِّصْفِ مَعَ الْعُذْرِ أَيْضًا ثُمَّ نَقَلَ عَنْ الْمُجْتَبَى أَنَّ إيمَاءَالْعَاجِزِ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ , صَلَاةِ الْقَائِمِ لِأَنَّهُ جُهْدُ الْمُقِلِّ . قَالَ : وَلَا يَخْفَى مَا فِيهِ , بَلْ الظَّاهِرُالْمُسَاوَاةُ كَمَا فِي النِّهَايَةِ . ا هـ . لَكِنْ ذَكَرَ الْقُهُسْتَانِيُّ مَا فِي الْمُجْتَبَى , ثُمَّ قَالَ :لَكِنْ فِي الْكَشْفِ أَنَّهُ قَالَ الشَّيْخُ أَبُو مَعِينٍ النَّسَفِيُّ : جَمِيعُ عِبَادَاتِ أَصْحَابِ الْأَعْذَارِكَالْمُومِي وَغَيْرِهِ تَقُومُ مَقَامَ الْعِبَادَاتِ الْكَامِلَةِ فِي حَقِّ إزَالَةِ الْمَأْثَمِ لَا فِي حَقِّ إحْرَازِالْفَضِيلَةِ . ا هـ . أَقُولُ : وَهُوَ مُوَافِقٌ لِقَوْلِ الْبَعْضِ الْمَارِّ , وَيُؤَيِّدُهُ حَدِيثُ الْبُخَارِيِّ {مَنْ صَلَّى قَائِمًا فَهُوَ أَفْضَلُ , وَمَنْ صَلَّى قَاعِدًا فَلَهُ نِصْفُ أَجْرِ الْقَائِمِ , وَمَنْ صَلَّى نَائِمًافَلَهُ نِصْفُ أَجْرِ الْقَاعِدِ } ” فَإِنَّ الْعُمُومَ ” مَنْ ” يَدْخُلُ فِيهِ الْعَاجِزُ , وَلِأَنَّ الصَّلَاةَ نَائِمًا لَاتَصِحُّ عِنْدَنَا بِلَا عُذْرٍ وَقَدْ جَعَلَ لَهُ نِصْفَ أَجْرِ الْقَاعِدِ , وَفِي هَذَا الْمَقَامِ زِيَادَةُ كَلَامٍيُطْلَبُ مِمَّا عَلَّقْنَاهُ عَلَى الْبَحْرِ ( قَوْلُهُ وَلَا يُصَلِّي إلَخْ ) هَذَا اللَّفْظُ رَوَاهُ ابْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ عَنْعُمَرَ . وَظَاهِرُ كَلَامِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَنَّهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَمُحَمَّدٌ أَعْلَمُ بِذَلِكَ مِنَّافَتْحٌ .  [ردّ المحتار على الدّرّ المختار ، ط البولاق ، 1: 468]

This answer was indexed from Qibla.com, which used to have a repository of Islamic Q&A answered by various scholars. The website is no longer in existence. It has now been transformed into a learning portal with paid Islamic course offering under the brand of Kiflayn.

Find more answers indexed from: Qibla.com
Read more answers with similar topics: