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Please let me know the distribution of his estate according to the shariah.

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

1. A man passed away leaving behind the following:
wife, brother, four sisters, four nephews and nine neices.
Please let me know the distribution of his estate according to the shariah.

2. The man made a request that the house he was living in with his aunt must remain with the aunt until she lives. Is this permissible?

Answer

1.      The estate will be divided into 8 shares. The following heirs will receive the mentioned respective shares:

a.       Wife: 2

b.      Brother: 2

c.       Sisters: Each sister will receive 1 share each

d.      The nephews and nieces will not inherit.

 

2.      Since the aunt is prevented from the inheritance and does not qualify as an heir, the bequest in her favor will be permissible. However, the bequest is always limited to one third of the estate. In this case, the value of the house will be taken into consideration in relation to the remainder of the estate. If the value of the house is equal or less than one third of the value of the entire estate, then the bequest will take place in favor of the aunt for as long as she lives. If the value of the house is more than one third of the value of the entire estate, then the aunt will be entitled to the benefit of that percentage of the house that would equal one third of the value of the estate unless all the heirs permit her to benefit from the entire house. Examples are given hereunder:

 

a.       Entire estate = 300,000 House = 100,000: aunt is permitted to make use of the house for as long as she lives

300,000 x 1/3 = 100,000 = entitled to entire bequest. In this case, the aunt can use the entire house as long as she lives. After her demise, the heirs will take over the house.

 

b.      Entire estate = 200,000 House = 100,000: aunt is permitted to make use of two thirds of the house and one third belongs to the heirs; unless the heirs choose to give their right in the remaining one third to the aunt.

200,000 x 1/3 = 66,666.66 = 2/3 of value of the house. In this case, the aunt can use two thirds of the house and the heirs are entitled to one third of the house. After her demise, the heirs will be entitled to the entire house.

 

Note: The permission of minors will not be valid in permitting the aunt to make use of the heirs’ share of the house. If any of the heirs are minors, it will not be permissible to permit the aunt to use the entire house if the value of the house is more than one third of the entire estate.

 

 

 

وَسَوَاءٌ كَانَتْ الْوَصِيَّةُ بِالْمَنَافِعِ مُؤَقَّتَةً بِوَقْتٍ مِنْ سَنَةٍ أَوْ شَهْرٍ ، أَوْ كَانَتْ مُطْلَقَةً عَنْ التَّوْقِيت ؛ لِأَنَّ الْوَصِيَّةَ بِالْمَنَافِعِ فِي مَعْنَى الْإِعَارَةِ ؛ لِأَنَّهَا تَمْلِيكُ الْمَنْفَعَةِ بِغَيْرِ عِوَضٍ ، ثُمَّ الْإِعَارَةُ تَصِحُّ مُؤَقَّتَةً ، وَمُطْلَقَةً عَنْ الْوَقْتِ . وَكَذَا الْوَصِيَّةُ غَيْرَ أَنَّهَا إذَا كَانَتْ مُطْلَقَةً ، فَلِلْمُوصَى لَهُ أَنْ يَنْتَفِعَ بِالْعَيْنِ مَا عَاشَ….

 

وَإِذَا جَازَتْ الْوَصِيَّةُ بِالْمَنَافِعِ يُعْتَبَرُ فِيهَا خُرُوجُ الْعَيْنِ الَّتِي أَوْصَى بِمَنْفَعَتِهَا مِنْ الثُّلُثِ ، وَلَا يُضَمُّ إلَيْهَا قِيمَةٌ ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمُوصَى بِهِ هُوَ الْمَنْفَعَةُ ، وَالْعَيْنُ مِلْكٌ لَمْ يَزُلْ عَنْهُ ؛ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُوصِيَ بِوَصِيَّتِهِ بِالْمَنَافِعِ مَنَعَ الْعَيْنَ عَنْ الْوَارِثِ ، وَحَبَسَهَا عَنْهُ لِفَوَاتِ الْمَقْصُودِ مِنْ الْعَيْنِ ، وَهُوَ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهَا ، فَصَارَتْ مَمْنُوعَةً عَنْ الْوَارِثِ مَحْبُوسَةً عَنْهُ ، وَالْمُوصِي لَا يَمْلِكُ مَنْعَ مَا زَادَ عَنْ الثُّلُثِ عَلَى الْوَارِثِ ، فَاعْتُبِرَ خُرُوجُ الْعَيْنِ مِنْ ثُلُثِ الْمَالِ

 

وَإِذَا كَانَ الْمُعْتَبَرُ خُرُوجَ الْعَيْنِ مِنْ الثُّلُثِ ، فَإِنْ خَرَجَتْ مِنْ الثُّلُثِ ؛ جَازَتْ الْوَصِيَّةُ فِي جَمِيعِ الْمَنَافِعِ ، فَلِلْمُوصَى لَهُ أَنْ يَنْتَفِعَ بِهَا ، فَيَسْتَخْدِمَ الْعَبْدَ ، وَيَسْكُنَ الدَّارَ مَا عَاشَ إنْ كَانَتْ الْوَصِيَّةُ مُطْلَقَةً عَنْ الْوَقْتِ ، فَإِذَا مَاتَ الْمُوصَى لَهُ بِالْمَنْفَعَةِ انْتَقَلَتْ إلَى مِلْكِ صَاحِبِ الْعَيْنِ…..

 

وَإِنْ كَانَتْ الْعَيْنُ لَا تَخْرُجُ مِنْ ثُلُثِ مَالِهِ ؛ جَازَتْ الْوَصِيَّةُ فِي الْمَنَافِعِ فِي قَدْرِ مَا تَخْرُجُ الْعَيْنُ مِنْ ثُلُثِ مَالِهِ بِأَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ آخَرُ سِوَى الْعَيْنِ مِنْ الْعَبْدِ ، وَالدَّارِ ، تُقَسَّمُ الْمَنْفَعَةُ بَيْنَ الْمُوصَى لَهُ ، وَبَيْنَ الْوَرَثَةِ أَثْلَاثًا ثُلُثُهَا لِلْمُوصَى لَهُ ، وَثُلُثَاهَا لِلْوَرَثَةِ ، فَيَسْتَخْدِمُ الْمُوصَى لَهُ الْعَبْدَ يَوْمًا ، وَالْوَرَثَةُ يَوْمَيْنِ ، وَفِي الدَّارِ يَسْكُنُ الْمُوصَى لَهُ ثُلُثَهَا ، وَالْوَرَثَةُ ثُلُثَيْهَا مَا دَامَ الْمُوصَى لَهُ حَيًّا ، فَإِذَا مَاتَ تُرَدُّ الْمَنْفَعَةُ إلَى الْوَرَثَةِ (بدائع الصنائع ج 6 ص 458 , دار الكتب ديوبند)

And Allah knows best
 

Ml. Yusuf bin Yaqub,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

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