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Two of my brothers are blatantly disregarding the LAW OF SHARIAH regarding the distribution of the assets

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Respected Mufti ,

Asalaamu alaikum

My father passed away and left behind assets of a substantial value.

The final will and testament was read out to ALL the members of my family by the presiding attorney. The final will and testament  clearly stated that the estate must be sequestrated or wound according to Shariah and further stated the appointment of the Ulema Council as presiding Islamic body. The heirs to the estate are my mother and four sons of whom I am the youngest. Respected Mufti , unfortunately two of my brothers are blatantly disregarding the LAW OF SHARIAH regarding the distribution of the assets. My parents were also married in Community Of Property and my brothers have now decided that they will use this to their advantage just so we can inherit a smaller portion. We have attempted to discuss this matter with them and it always ends in a deadlock. We have also requested senior members of the family to intervene but in vain.

Respected Mufti, please kindly advice on this matter and also outlining the positive and negative impact that this will have on our relationship and the inheritance.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

–        The concept of community of property is not Shariah compliant.

–        The following verses of the Qur’aan and Ahadith should be referred to the brothers.

Allah Ta’āla states in the Qur’aan:

يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا (29) النساء

Translation:

“O you who have Imaan, do not unjustly consume the (Haraam) wealth of each other (by stealing or by other unacceptable means), but (you may exchange wealth with each other) by way of trade (conducted) with your mutual consent…” [An-Nisaa’: 29]

Allah Ta’āla states in another place:

ومن يعص الله ورسوله ويتعد حدوده يدخله نارا خالدا فيها وله عذاب مهين (14) النساء

“And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad ), and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment”. [An-Nisaa’: 14] 

Nabi ﷺ has said:

عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ يَثْرِبِيٍّ الضَّمْرِيِّ، قَالَ: شَهِدْتُ خُطْبَةَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِمِنًى، فَكَانَ فِيمَا خَطَبَ بِهِ أَنْ قَالَ: ” وَلَا يَحِلُّ لِامْرِئٍ مِنْ مَالِ أَخِيهِ إِلَّا مَا طَابَتْ بِهِ نَفْسُهُ “ 

مسند أحمد ط الرسالة (24/ 239))

Translation:

“It is unlawful for a person to take the wealth of his brother except if it is (given) through good heart (happily).” [Musnad-Ahmad; Vol. 24, Pg. 239 – Ar-Risaalah]

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ has also said:

عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَكَانَتْ، بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أُنَاسٍ خُصُومَةٌ فِي أَرْضٍ، فَدَخَلَ عَلَى عَائِشَةَ فَذَكَرَ لَهَا ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَتْ: يَا أَبَا سَلَمَةَ، اجْتَنِبِ الأَرْضَ، فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ ظَلَمَ قِيدَ شِبْرٍ طُوِّقَهُ مِنْ سَبْعِ أَرَضِين»

                                     صحيح البخاري (4/ 106) – دار طوق النجاة

Translation: 

“Whoever usurps unlawfully even a hand span of land a collar measuring seven times (this) land will be placed around his neck on the Day of Resurrection.” [Al-Bukhari; Vol. 4, Pg. 106 – Tauqun-Najah]

In another narration Nabi ﷺ says:

” مَنْ قَطَعَ مِيرَاثًا فَرَضَهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ قَطَعَ اللهُ بِهِ مِيرَاثًا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ “

Translation: 

“Whoever cuts/takes from his heirs’ inheritance, Allah will cut out his share from Jannah on the day of Qiyaamah (Day of Judgement).” [Baihaqi – Shuabul-Imaan; Vol. 10, Pg. 340 – Maktaba Darur-Rushad] [1]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Safwaan Ibn Ml Ahmed Ibn Ibrahim

Student Darul Iftaa
Limbe, Malawi

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

________________________________

سنن ابن ماجه – دار إحياء الكتب العربية – فيصل عيسى البابي الحلبي (2/ 902) [1]

مَنْ فَرَّ مِنْ مِيرَاثِ وَارِثِهِ، قَطَعَ اللَّهُ مِيرَاثَهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

[تعليق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي]

في الزوائد في إسناده زيد العمى.

[حكم الألباني]

ضعيف

سنن سعيد بن منصور (1/ 118) الدار السلفية – الهند 

سَعِيدٌ قَالَ: نا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَيَّاشٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ الْكِنَانِيِّ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ مُوسَى، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «مَنْ قَطَعَ مِيرَاثًا فَرَضَهُ اللَّهُ، قَطَعَ اللَّهُ مِيرَاثَهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ»

 

شعب الإيمان (10/ 340) مكتبة الرشد للنشر والتوزيع بالرياض بالتعاون مع الدار السلفية ببومباي بالهند 

–          أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو طَاهِرٍ الْفَقِيهُ، أنا أَبُو بَكْرٍ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ الْقَطَّانُ، نا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ السُّلَمِيُّ، نا سَالِمُ بْنُ شَيْخٍ، بِالْبَصْرَةِ، نا الْخَزْرَجُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ، مَوْلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” تُعْرَضُ الْأَعْمَالُ عَشِيَّةَ كُلِّ خَمِيسٍ لَيْلَةَ الْجُمُعَةِ، فَلَا يُرْفَعُ فِيهَا قَاطِعُ رَحِمٍ “

–         وَبِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” مَنْ قَطَعَ مِيرَاثًا فَرَضَهُ اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ قَطَعَ اللهُ بِهِ مِيرَاثًا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ “

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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