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What is predestination (qadr) and what does Quran and Hadith say about it?

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Muftisays.com

Please can you give the explanation of predestination (qadr) and quotes from Quran and Hadith. Jazakallah


Al-jawab billahi at-taufeeq (the answer with Allah’s guidance)

The belief that everything which happened, happen and will happen is according to the knowledge, will and command of Allah Ta’ala is called Taqdeer.

Taqdeer is also called Al-Qadha Wal-Qadr, which means to “measure out” or “pre-ordering.”

Taqdeer is one of the articles of the Islamic faith.

Belief in Taqdeer is compulsory. A person who rejects this will be a Kafir.

1) Quran.

Allah Ta’ala says:

“Who has created (everything), and then proportioned it.” (87:2)

“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz).” (54:49)

“No affliction can befall either the earth, or yourself, except that it is (written) in a Book before We created it. That is easy for Allah.”

“So that you will not be saddened for whatever does not come to you, nor be overjoyed in what has come to you. Allah does not love those who are proud and boastful.” (57:22,23)

“And give him sustenance from whence he thinks not; and whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him; surely Allah attains His purpose; Allah indeed has appointed a measure for everything.” (65:3)

2) Ahadeeth.

Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (RadhiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu) narrates:

“I was (once) behind Nabi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) when he said to me: ‘O son! I shall inform you of a few things. Remember Allah Ta’ala and He will protect you. Remember Allah Ta’ala and you will find Him close to you. When you have to ask for something, ask of Allah Ta’ala. When you require aid, seek His Aid. Believe firmly that if all creation desires to benefit you in anything, they can never benefit you but that which Allah has decreed for you. If they all unite to harm you, they will not be able to harm you in anything, but that which Allah Ta’ala has decreed for you.” (Tirmidhi)

Hadhrat Abu Dardaa (RadhiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu) narrates that Allah Ta’ala has already predestined five things for all people, which is, age, sustenance (Rizq), deeds, place of burial and final salvation or condemnation. (Ahmad, Bazzaaz, Kabeer, Ausat)

Hadhrat Mu’aawiyah (RadhiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “Do not advance to acquire something, thinking that you can acquire it by your efforts even though Allah Ta’ala has not predestined it for you nor retreat from something, thinking that you will be able to obviate it by your efforts even though Allah Ta’ala has predestined it for you.” (Kabeer and Ausat)

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RadhiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“Strive to acquire what is beneficial for you; seek the aid of Allah; do not lose courage and if a setback overtakes you, do not say: ‘If I had done this then it would have happened like this (i.e. not what had happened).’ Instead, say: ‘Allah has ordained this. Whatever He has willed, has happened. (Muslim)

Hadhrat Sa’d narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

“The good fortune of a person is that he remains pleased with what Allah has ordained for him. The misfortune of a person is that he refrains from asking Allah for goodness and that he is displeased with what Allah has ordained for him.” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi)

It is mentioned in Al Fiqh Al Akbar:

“Allah Ta’ala created things out of nothing (He brought entities from the state of non-existence into existence), and He had knowledge of them in eternity, before their creation.”

“He is The One who willed and decreed for all things to happen.”

“Nothing happens in this universe or in the hereafter except by His will, His knowledge, His judgment, predestination, and except it being written on the Sacred Tablet (Al-Lawh Al-Mah’footh), yet this inscription is description, not foreordaining.”

“The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar) and Will are eternal attributes without “how”.”

“Allah Ta’ala knows the non-existent, while in its state of non-existence, as non-existent. And He knows how it will be when He brings it into existence.”

“Allah Ta’ala knows the existent, while in its state of existence, as existent, and He knows how it will perish. ”

“Allah Ta’ala knows the one who is standing, while in the state of standing as standing, and when in the state of sitting, as sitting, without Allah’s knowledge being changed, or new knowledge added to Him.”

(Al Fiqh Al Akbar: Chapter, The Creating and Decree)

And Only Allah Ta’ala Knows Best.

Moulana Qamruz Zaman
London, UK

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This answer was collected from MuftiSays.com, based in London (UK). It is one of the fruits of Darul Uloom London. Many ‘ulama are involved in answering the Q&A on the site, including: Shaikul Hadeeth Mufti Umar Farooq Sahib, Mufti Saifur Rahman Sahib, Mufti Abdullah Patel Sahib, Maulana Qamruz Zaman Sahib, Mufti Abu Bakr Karolia Sahib.

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