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Can Jumu’ah be performed before Zawaal?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DarulUloomTT.net

As Salaamu alaykum, Respected Mufti Waseem K. (DB),

What is the  narration for evidence to make Jumuah Salah before zawal in the Hanbali madhhab.

Wa Alaikum Assalaam,

الجواب و بالله التوفيق

The evidence which is used in the Hanbali Madhab to state that Jumuah Salah can be performed before Zawal is the following:

1.Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A) states, ‘We used to perform Salaah with the Prophet (S.A.S), and would return and allow our camels to rest. It was said to Jafar (who narrated from his father from Jabir (R.A), ‘At what time was that?’ He said, ‘When the sun passed its Zenith.’ (Saheeh Muslim Hadith No.858).

2.Sahl (R.A) narrates that they (the Sahabahs) used to take a rest and eat lunch only after the Jumu’ah Salah.’ (Saheeh Muslim, Hadith No.859)

3.Salamah Ibn Al Akwah narrated that they used to perform the Jumu’ah Salah with the Prophet (S.A.S) and would then return home and could not find any wall offering shade.’ (Saheeh Al Bukari, Hadith No.4168; Saheeh Muslim Hadith No.860).

These are the traditions which have been used by the Hanbali Scholars to state that Jumu’ah used to be performed early at the time of the Prophet (S.A.S) to the extent that some traditions state that the companions will perform Jumu’ah first and then take lunch which according to the Hanbalis indicate to an early time. The other tradition of Salmah bin Al Akwah speaks about ‘not finding enough shade from the wall’ even though Jumu’ah was already performed which tells how early it was. (Al Mughni Ibn Qudama, Vol. 2, Pgs. 356, 357, Maktaba Al Jumhooriya Al Arabiya, Cairo).

When looked at carefully, these traditions do not give any clear cut indication/evidence that Jumu’ah Salah was performed before Zawal. In fact, these traditions show that Jumu’ah was performed after Zawal (after the sun had passed its meridian). In the hadith quoted above from Jabir Bin Abdullah (R.A), it was clearly stated by Jafar, the narrator, that the time Jumu’ah was performed was ‘When the sun passed the Zenith.’ It shows that the Jumu’ah Salah and allowing the camels to rest occurred when the sun had passed the meridian. It is not that Salaah was performed before it. (Ghunya Al Mutamalli, Pg.555, Suhail Academy, Lahore, Pakistan 1987).

The narration of Salamah Ibn Al Akwah also does not indicate to the performance of Jumu’ah before Zawal (Zenith). In fact, the narration indicates to the fact that the Salaah of Jumu’ah was performed after the sun passed the meridian. The statement of Salamah (R.A) that ‘they would return home and could not find any wall offering shade’ means that there was not enough shade for them to seek shade. (Al Majmoo’ Sharh Al Muhazzab Vol.5, 488,489, Dar Al Kutub Al Ilmiya, Beirut 2007).

The most correct view on this topic is the opinion/verdict of the majority of Scholars that the time for Jumu’ah is the same time as that of Dhuhr Salaat.

Imam Nawawi states, ‘Our Madhab (i.e. Imam Shafi) is that the time of Jumu’ah is the same time as that of Dhuhr, and it is not permissible to be done before. This is the verdict of Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa and the overwhelming majority of scholars from the Sahabahs, the Tabieen and those after them.’ (Al Majmoo’ Vol.5, Pg.487 Dar Al Kutub Al Ilmiya Beirut 2007).

The evidences of the majority of Scholars is as follows:

  1. Anas Ibn Malik (R.A) narrates that the Prophet (S.A.S) used to perform the Jumu’ah Salaah when the sun had passed the meridian.’ (Saheeh Al Bukhari, Hadith No.904).
  2. Salamah Ibn Al Akwah (R.A) stated, ‘We used to perform the Jumu’ah Salaah with the Prophet (S.A.S) when the sun had passed its meridian, then we would go back trying to seek shade.’ (Saheeh Muslim Hadith No. 860).

And Allah Knows Best.

Mufti Waseem Khan.

16/9/16.

This answer was collected from DarulUloomTT.net, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Waseem Khan from Darul Uloom Trinidad and Tobago.

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