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Is Nikah done over social media valid?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Is nikah done over a social network!? If ijab and qabooll is done (written on) over a Facebook page (or Twitter or whatever) with it being on public (as in a public page – for public view) lots and lots of boys can read it at the time the question and answer and Nikah declarences were done. (As in written on the page) would Nikah be done? No intention of Nikah acrially taking place..! Beyond myself with worry. Please reply. JazakAllah.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful.

As-salaamu `alaykum wa-ramatullahi wa-barakatuh.

A nikah conducted over social media (Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp etc) will not be valid despite the proposal (Ijab) and acceptance (Qabool) written on the social facility ad despite it being read by many people. The issue of Shahadah (personal/physical witnessing) in a nikaah is integral and decisive in the validity of the nikaah. The Ijaab and Qubool must be physically witnessed in one sitting by two adult muslim males or one adult muslim male and two adult muslim females.

Shahadah is not concluded over social media. Therefore, the nikah conducted over social media is not valid.[1]

In case if both parties are far away from each other, one of the two parties may appoint a representative to make a proposal or acceptance.[2]

And Allah Ta`ala Knows Best.

Hussein Muhammad.

Student Darul Iftaa

Arusha, Tanzania

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

_______


[1]

النهر الفائق شرح كنز الدقائق (2/ 178)

واعلم أن للإيجاب والقبول شرائط اتحاد المجلس فلو اختلف لم ينعقد

 

الدر المختار شرح تنوير الأبصار وجامع البحار (ص: 178)

ومن شرائط الايجاب القبول: اتحاد المجلس

 

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (3/ 89)

 فمنها اتحاد المجلس إذا كان الشخصان حاضرين فلو اختلف المجلس لم ينعقد فلو أوجب أحدهما فقام الآخر أو اشتغل بعمل آخر بطل الإيجاب؛

[2]

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 231)

ثُمَّ النِّكَاحُ كَمَا يَنْعَقِدُ بِهَذِهِ الْأَلْفَاظِ بِطَرِيقِ الْأَصَالَةِ يَنْعَقِدُ بِهَا بِطَرِيقِ النِّيَابَةِ، بِالْوَكَالَةِ، وَالرِّسَالَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ تَصَرُّفَ الْوَكِيلِ كَتَصَرُّفِ الْمُوَكِّلِ، وَكَلَامَ الرَّسُولِ كَلَامُ الْمُرْسِلِ، وَالْأَصْلُ فِي جَوَازِ الْوَكَالَةِ فِي بَابِ النِّكَاحِ مَا رُوِيَ أَنَّ النَّجَّاشِيَّ زَوَّجَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أُمَّ حَبِيبَةَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا – فَلَا يَخْلُو ذَلِكَ إمَّا أَنْ فَعَلَهُ بِأَمْرِ النَّبِيِّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَوْ لَا بِأَمْرِهِ، فَإِنْ فَعَلَهُ بِأَمْرِهِ فَهُوَ وَكِيلُهُ، وَإِنْ فَعَلَهُ بِغَيْرِ أَمْرِهِ فَقَدْ أَجَازَ النَّبِيُّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – عَقْدَهُ وَالْإِجَازَةُ اللَّاحِقَةُ كَالْوَكَالَةِ السَّابِقَةِ، وَكَمَا يَنْعَقِدُ النِّكَاحُ بِالْعِبَارَةِ يَنْعَقِدُ بِالْإِشَارَةِ مِنْ الْأَخْرَسِ إذَا كَانَتْ إشَارَتُهُ مَعْلُومَةً وَيَنْعَقِدُ بِالْكِتَابَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ الْغَائِبِ خِطَابُهُ – وَاَللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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