Ruling on Combining Different Things in One Oath

Answered according to Shafi'i Fiqh by Darul Iftaa Jordan
I have made an oath to do different things, then I did one of them, is an expiation incumbent on me?

All perfect praise be to Allah. Blessings and peace be upon Prophet Mohammad:

The ruling on someone who combines different things in one oath varies in accordance with the connective article that he uses between them:

If he used the conjunction (wa) like in saying(Wa- Allah, La ashrab al maa wa al-asseer)( ByAllah, I won`t drink the water and the juice), then it is considered one oath and he is required to expiate once. His oath is only broken once he drinks the water and the juice as well.

This is unless he makes an intention upon swearing the oath that he will abstain from drinking each separately. In this case, he is required to honor his oath, but if he doesn`t, then he is required to expiate for each time.

It was stated in " Assnaa Al-Matalib " If he used the conjunction(wa) such as saying(La okalimo Zaidan wa Amran)( I won`t talk to Zaid and Amir), or ( La Akolo Al-Lahma wa Al-Enaab )( I won`t eat the meat and the grapes), then breaking the oath is related to both of them because the conjunction(wa) makes them one thing, unless he intended one of them, and in this case breaking the oath pertains to one of them."

However, if the negation was added to the conjunction(wa) like when he said: ( Wa-Allah la ashrab al maa` wala al asseer )(By Allah, I will neither drink the water, nor the juice), then they are considered two oaths, and breaking one doesn`t break the other. Therefore, each requires a separate expiation.

It was stated in " Assnaa Al-Matalib ": " If he said: (La okalimo Zaidan wa la Amran)(I will talk to neither Zaid nor Amr), or (La akolo Al-lahma wa la al enaab)( I will eat neither the meat, nor the grapes), then two oaths count because of the double negation, so he breaks each of them separately.

Accordingly, If you made one oath to do different things, but you intended swearing for each thing separately, then it is incumbent upon you to offer an expiation for each thing that you do.

However, if your intention was to do all of these different things together, then one expiation is incumbent upon you once you do all of them; whereas, doing some of them entails no expiation on your part. And Allah knows best.

This answer was collected from the official government Iftaa Department of Jordan.

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