Answered by Shaykh Omar Subedar
How long should the rukūʾ (bowing during ritual prayer) last?
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Jazāk Allāh Khayr/ Thank you for contacting Mathabah for your question.
A person must perform rukūʾ for the duration of saying ‘Subhān Allāh’ (Glory be to God) once.
Abū Bakr ibn Mas’ūd Al Kāsāni Al Ḥanafī [d. 587 H] writes, “Among the mandatory practices (wājibāt) of ṣalāh (ritual prayer) is performing rukūʾ (bowing) and sujūd (prostration) calmly and peacefully. This is the view of Abū Hanīfa and Muḥammad [ibn Ḥasan Al Shaybānī].
Abū Yūsuf is of the view that [performing these postures] with calmness for the duration of saying one ‘Subhān Allāh’ is obligatory (fardh). This view has been adopted by Shāfi’ī [as well].” [Badāiʾ Al Ṣanāiʾ p.686 vol. 1, Dār Al-Kotob Al-Ilmīyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 1997]
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم once instructed a bedouin who was failing to perform his ṣalāh in a proper manner, “When you stand to perform ṣalāh, say the takbīr (Allāh Akbar – God is the Greatest). Then recite whatever is easy for you from the Qurʾān. Then perform rukūʾ until you are calmly in the position of rukūʾ…” [Abū Dāwūd: 856]
And Allāh Knows Best