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Does the father have the right to sell the properties to his son?

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

My father whose age is 80 years, left us 35 years ago (my parents are seperated not divorced). I have 4 brothers and 2 sisters, all younger to me.ย 

One year before my father sold a property to all my 4 brothers in a very cheap rate as compared to the market rate.

My brothers and my father did not considered us (all the 3 sisters) about the sell and purchase of the property.

Please give me your comments (with reference) whether my father at this age can sell the property to my brothers without concerning the daughters and vice versa i.e. brothers can purchase my fathers property without our concern.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salฤmu โ€˜alaykum wa-rahmatullฤhi wa-barakฤtuh.

Consider the following hadith:

ุญูŽุฏู‘ูŽุซูŽู†ูŽุง ู…ูุญูŽู…ู‘ูŽุฏู ุจู’ู†ู ุจูุดู’ุฑูุŒ ุญูŽุฏู‘ูŽุซูŽู†ูŽุง ุฃูŽุจููˆ ุญูŽูŠู‘ูŽุงู†ูŽ ุงู„ุชู‘ูŽูŠู’ู…ููŠู‘ูุŒ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ุดู‘ูŽุนู’ุจููŠู‘ูุŒ ุญูŽุฏู‘ูŽุซูŽู†ููŠ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูุนู’ู…ูŽุงู†ู ุจู’ู†ู ุจูŽุดููŠุฑูุŒ ุฃูŽู†ู‘ูŽ ุฃูู…ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุจูู†ู’ุชูŽ ุฑูŽูˆูŽุงุญูŽุฉูŽุŒ ุณูŽุฃูŽู„ูŽุชู’ ุฃูŽุจูŽุงู‡ู ุจูŽุนู’ุถูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ู‡ูุจูŽุฉู ู…ูู†ู’ ู…ูŽุงู„ูู‡ู ู„ุงูุจู’ู†ูู‡ูŽุง ููŽุงู„ู’ุชูŽูˆูŽู‰ ุจูู‡ูŽุง ุณูŽู†ูŽุฉู‹ ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ุจูŽุฏูŽุง ู„ูŽู‡ู ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽุชู’ ู„ุงูŽ ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽู‰ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ุชูุดู’ู‡ูุฏูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู…ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‡ูŽุจู’ุชูŽ ู„ุงูุจู’ู†ููŠ โ€.โ€ ููŽุฃูŽุฎูŽุฐูŽ ุฃูŽุจููŠ ุจููŠูŽุฏููŠ ูˆูŽุฃูŽู†ูŽุง ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽุฆูุฐู ุบูู„ุงูŽู…ูŒ ููŽุฃูŽุชูŽู‰ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ูŠูŽุง ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุฃูู…ู‘ูŽ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง ุจูู†ู’ุชูŽ ุฑูŽูˆูŽุงุญูŽุฉูŽ ุฃูŽุนู’ุฌูŽุจูŽู‡ูŽุง ุฃูŽู†ู’ ุฃูุดู’ู‡ูุฏูŽูƒูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ูˆูŽู‡ูŽุจู’ุชู ู„ุงูุจู’ู†ูู‡ูŽุง โ€.โ€ ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… โ€”โ€ ูŠูŽุง ุจูŽุดููŠุฑู ุฃูŽู„ูŽูƒูŽ ูˆูŽู„ูŽุฏูŒ ุณููˆูŽู‰ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง โ€”โ€ โ€.โ€ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู†ูŽุนูŽู…ู’ โ€.โ€ ููŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ โ€”โ€ ุฃูŽูƒูู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽู‡ูŽุจู’ุชูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูุซู’ู„ูŽ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุง โ€”โ€ โ€.โ€ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู„ุงูŽ โ€.โ€ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ โ€”โ€ ููŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูุดู’ู‡ูุฏู’ู†ููŠ ุฅูุฐู‹ุง ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ููŠ ู„ุงูŽ ุฃูŽุดู’ู‡ูŽุฏู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุฌูŽูˆู’ุฑู โ€”โ€ โ€.โ€

Nu’man bin Bashir (Radiyllahu Anhu) reported that his mother bint Rawaha (Radiyllah Anha) asked his (Nu’man’s) father about donating some gifts from his property to his son. He deferred the matter by one year, and then set forth to do that. She (Nu’man’s mother) said: I shall not be pleased unless you call Allah’s Messenger (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) as witness to what you confer as a gift on your son. (Nu’man said): So father took hold of my hand and I was at that time a boy, and came to Allah’s Messenger (Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and said: Allah’s Messenger, the mother of this son (of mine), daughter of Rawaha wishes that I should call you witness to what I confer as gift to her son. Allah’s Messenger ((Salallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: Bashir, have you any other son besides this (son of yours)? He said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Have you given gifts to all of them like this? He said: No. Thereupon He (the Holy Prophet) said: Then call me not as witness, for I cannot be witness to an injustice. (Muslim-1623)

From the above hadith it is clear that when one wants to give his/her belongings to his children as a gift during his life time then, it should be divided equally between the surviving children regardless of whether they are males or females.[1]

ย In the enquired case, in principle the property is not being gifted to the sons but, it is being sold to them. Therefore, the father has the right to sell the property to whom so ever he wants at whatever rate he wishes. [2]

However, we observe the property is being sold below market value. This may be considered as an indirect gift which could evoke emotions of the sisters if they are not given the equal opportunity to procure the property as well.

And Allah Taโ€™ฤla Knows Best

Ismail Dawoodjee

Student Darul Iftaa
Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.netย 

[1](ูˆุฃู…ุง) ูƒูŠููŠุฉ ุงู„ุนุฏู„ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ูู‚ุฏ ู‚ุงู„ ุฃุจูˆ ูŠูˆุณู ุงู„ุนุฏู„ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู† ูŠุณูˆูŠ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ุนุทูŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูุถู„ ุงู„ุฐูƒุฑ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃู†ุซู‰ ูˆู‚ุงู„ ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุงู„ุนุฏู„ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ุฃู† ูŠุนุทูŠู‡ู… ุนู„ู‰ ุณุจูŠู„ ุงู„ุชุฑุชูŠุจ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ูˆุงุฑูŠุซ ู„ู„ุฐูƒุฑ ู…ุซู„ ุญุธ ุงู„ุฃู†ุซูŠูŠู† ูƒุฐุง ุฐูƒุฑ ุงู„ู‚ุงุถูŠ ุงู„ุงุฎุชู„ุงู ุจูŠู†ู‡ู…ุง ููŠ ุดุฑุญ ู…ุฎุชุตุฑ ุงู„ุทุญุงูˆูŠ ูˆุฐูƒุฑ ู…ุญู…ุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ูˆุทุฅ ูŠู†ุจุบูŠ ู„ู„ุฑุฌู„ ุฃู† ูŠุณูˆูŠ ุจูŠู† ูˆู„ุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุญู„ ูˆู„ุง ูŠูุถู„ ุจุนุถู‡ู… ุนู„ู‰ ุจุนุถ.

ูˆุธุงู‡ุฑ ู‡ุฐุง ูŠู‚ุชุถูŠ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ู…ุน ู‚ูˆู„ ุฃุจูŠ ูŠูˆุณู ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุตุญูŠุญ ู„ู…ุง ุฑูˆูŠ ุฃู† ุจุดูŠุฑุง ุฃุจุง ุงู„ู†ุนู…ุงู† ุฃุชู‰ ุจุงู„ู†ุนู…ุงู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ – ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… – ูู‚ุงู„ ุฅู†ูŠ ู†ุญู„ุช ุงุจู†ูŠ ู‡ุฐุง ุบู„ุงู…ุง ูƒุงู† ู„ูŠ ูู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡ ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ – ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… – ูƒู„ ูˆู„ุฏูƒ ู†ุญู„ุชู‡ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ูู‚ุงู„ ู„ุง ูู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ – ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุตู„ุงุฉ ูˆุงู„ุณู„ุงู… – ูุฃุฑุฌุนู‡ ูˆู‡ุฐุง ุฅุดุงุฑุฉ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุฏู„ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุฃูˆู„ุงุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุญู„ุฉ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ูˆู„ุฃู† ููŠ ุงู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ ุชุฃู„ูŠู ุงู„ู‚ู„ูˆุจ ูˆุงู„ุชูุถูŠู„ ูŠูˆุฑุซ ุงู„ูˆุญุดุฉ ุจูŠู†ู‡ู… ููƒุงู†ุช ุงู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ (ุงู„ุฑุฏุงู„ู…ุญุชุงุฑ ุฌ6 ุต127 ุนู„ู…ูŠุฉ)

ูˆููŠ ุงู„ุฎู„ุงุตุฉ ุงู„ู…ุฎุชุงุฑ ุงู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุฐูƒุฑ ูˆุงู„ุฃู†ุซู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ู‡ุจุฉ (ุงู„ุจุญุฑ ุงู„ุฑุงุฆู‚ ุฌ7 ุต288 ุณุนูŠุฏ)

ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ุถุนูŠู ุบูู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู†ู‡ ู‚ุฏ ุซุจุช ุจู…ุง ุฐูƒุฑู†ุง ุฃู† ู…ุฐู‡ุจ ุงู„ุฌู…ู‡ูˆุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุชุณูˆูŠุฉ ุจูŠู† ุงู„ุฐูƒุฑ ูˆ ุงู„ุฃู†ุซู‰ ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ุญูŠุงุฉ ุฃู‚ูˆู‰ ูˆ ุฃุฑุฌุญ ู…ู† ุญูŠุซ ุงู„ุฏู„ูŠู„ (ุชูƒู…ู„ุฉ ูุชุญ ุงู„ู…ู„ู‡ู… ุฌ4 ุต48 ุฏุงุฑ ุงู„ู‚ู„ู…)

[2] ูˆูŠุฌูˆุฒ ู„ู„ุจุงุฆุน ุฃู† ูŠุฒูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุดุชุฑูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุจูŠุนุŒ ูˆูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุฃู† ูŠุญุท ุนู† ุงู„ุซู…ู†ุŒ ูˆูŠุชุนู„ู‚ ุงู„ุงุณุชุญู‚ุงู‚ ุจุฌู…ูŠุน ุฐู„ูƒ

(ูˆูŠุฌูˆุฒ ู„ู„ุจุงุฆุน ุฃู† ูŠุฒูŠุฏ ุงู„ู…ุดุชุฑูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุจูŠุน ูˆูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุฃู† ูŠุญุท ุนู† ุงู„ุซู…ู†) ุด: ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ุจุงุฆุน ู„ู„ู…ุดุชุฑูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ุจูŠุน ุฌุงุฆุฒุฉ ู…ุง ุฏุงู… ุงู„ู…ุจูŠุน ู‚ุงุฆู…ุง ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ู…ุนู‚ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ู…ุง ุฏุงู… ู‚ุงุฆู…ุง ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ู‚ุงุฆู…ุง ู„ู‚ูŠุงู… ุฃุซุฑู‡ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ ุงู„ู…ุณุชูุงุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ุนูŠู† ูุฅุฐุง ู‡ู„ูƒ ู„ู… ุชุตุญ ุงู„ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ู„ุฃู† ุงู„ุนุฏู… ู„ุง ูŠุตุญ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑู‡ ุจุฎู„ุงู ุงู„ุญุท ูุฅู†ู‡ ูŠุตุญ ุจุนุฏ ู‡ู„ุงูƒ ุงู„ู…ุนู‚ูˆุฏ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ู„ูˆ ุฃู…ูƒู† ุฃู† ูŠุฌุนู„ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑุง ู„ู„ุนู‚ุฏ ุจุฃู† ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ู‚ุงุฆู…ุง ุฌุนู„ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑุง ูˆุฅู† ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุฌุนู„ู‡ ุชุบูŠูŠุฑุง ูƒู…ุง ููŠ ุญุงู„ุฉ ุงู„ู‡ู„ุงูƒ ุฌุนู„ ุจุฑุกุง ุนู† ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ูุตุญ ุงู„ุญุท ููŠ ุงู„ุญุงู„ูŠู†. (ุงู„ุจู†ุงูŠุฉ ุดุฑุญ ุงู„ู‡ุฏุงูŠุฉุŒ ุฌ ูกู ุŒ ุต ูฃูจู ุŒ ุงู„ู…ูƒุชุจุฉ ุงู„ุญู‚ุงู†ูŠุฉ)

ย [3] ุงู„ุจูŠุน ูŠู†ุนู‚ุฏ ุจุงู„ุงูŠุฌุงุจ ูˆ ุงู„ู‚ุจูˆู„ ุงุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุจู„ูุธูŠ ุงู„ู…ุถูŠ ูˆ ุงุฐุง ุงูˆุฌุจ ุงุญุฏ ุงู„ู…ุชุนุงู‚ุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุจูŠุน ูุงู„ุงุฎุฑ ุจุงู„ุฎูŠุงุฑ …ูˆ ุฃุฐุง ุญุตู„ ุงู„ุงูŠุฌุงุจ ูˆ ุงู„ู‚ุจูˆู„ ู„ุฒู… ุงู„ุจูŠุน ูˆู„ุง ุฎูŠุงุฑ ู„ูˆุงุญุฏ ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุง (ู„ุงู† ููŠ ุงู„ูุณุฎ ุฃุจุทุงู„ ุญู‚ ุงู„ุงุฎุฑ ูู„ุง ูŠุฌูˆุฒ) ุงู„ุง ู…ู† ุนูŠุจ ุงูˆ ุนุฏู… ุฑูˆูŠุฉ (ุงู„ุจุงุจ ุฌ3 ุต8 ุฏุงุฑ ุงู„ุณุฑุงุฌ (

ูุฑูƒู†ู‡ ู…ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู… ุจู‡ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ูˆ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุงูŠุฌุงุจ ูˆ ุงู„ู‚ุจูˆู„ ุงุฐุง ูƒุงู†ุง ุจู„ูุธ ุงู„ู…ุงุถู‰ ุฐูƒุฑู‡ ูู‰ ุงู„ูƒุงูู‰ ูˆ ุดุฑุทู‡ ุงู…ูˆุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ูู‰ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุนุงู‚ู„ุง ู…ู…ูŠุฒุง ูˆู…ู†ู‡ุง ูู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ู„ุฉ ุงู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุจู„ูุธ ุงู„ู…ุงุถู‰ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ุง ุงู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุงู„ู…ุญู„ ู…ู‚ุฏูˆุฑ ุงู„ุชุณู„ูŠู… ูˆู…ู†ู‡ุง ุงู„ุชุฑุงุถู‰ ูˆ ุญูƒู…ู‡ ุงู„ู…ู„ูƒ (ุชุงุชุฑุฎุงู†ูŠุฉ ุฌ8 ุต212 ู…ูƒุชุจุฉ ุฒูƒุฑูŠุง)

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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