• Ruling: It is a communal obligation (Fard Kifayah)
• Time: a) Begins when the prohibited time after Salatu-l Fajr
b) Ends when the prohibited time before Dhuhr begins.
It is recommended for the prayer of ‘Eid al-Fitr to be delayed to the latter portion of its time and for the prayer of ‘Eid al-Adha to be performed as early as possible.
• Place: The Sunnah is to offer it in an open ground which isn’t too far; if it’s so far that going to it will turn one into a traveller, in the legal sense, then one shouldn’t do so as the prayer of ‘Eid isn’t valid for a traveller. So the distance one should bear in mind is approximately 138 km as calculated by Sh. Ahmad al-Qu’aymi and others. The common position amongst our contemporary scholars is that it is 80 km and if one feels that they are more comfortable with this then they can go for this. We will share the calculation in a more relevant post in the future, InshaAllah.
It is Makruh to offer the ‘Eid prayer in a mosque, unless
a) one has a valid excuse (e.g. – rain, inability to travel there etc) or
b) one is in Makkah; in the case of which they pray in the Haram.
• Some conditions for the obligation of the ‘Eid prayer
a) Permanent residency,
b) legal age,
d) the number of worshippers in the congregation including the Imam should forty (40) as per the Maddhab.
• Description of the ‘Eid prayer:
The two units of prayer is to be offered before the Khutbah. If the Khutbah is done before the prayer then the Khutbah isn’t valid.
Step 1: First Takbir (Takbiratu-l Ihram)
Step 2: Du’a of Istiftah.
Step 3: Six Takbirs and between each of these Takbirs one says, “Allahu Akbaru Kabeeran, Wal Hamdu Lillahi Kathiran, Wa Subhanallahi Bukratan Wa Asilan, Wa Sallallahu ‘Ala Muhammadi-ninnabiyyi Wa Alihi Wa Sallama Taslima).
Step 4: A’udhubillahi Min-ash Shaitani-r Rajim, Bismillahi-r Rahmani-r Rahim
Step 5: Al-Fatihah + Surah al-A’la
Step 6: Ruku’ + Sujud + Standing back up for the second rak’ah
Step 7: Five Takbirs and between each you recite what we mentioned above. (Note: These five for the second Rak’ah are to be performed before al-Fatihah).
Step 8: Al-Fatihah + Surah al-Ghashiyah
Step 9: Ruku’ + Sujud + Tashahhud + Salam
NOTE: The extra Takbirat in the ‘Eid prayer is a Sunnah and leaving it out does not affect the validity of the prayer, so one should not make a big deal out of it if there is a mix up. If you are the Imam and you got mixed up then build on the smallest number you are sure of. For example, if you aren’t sure whether you have done 3 or 4 Takbirahs; go for the 3.
NOTE: With each extra Takbirah one raises their hands and palces them back below the navel or slightly above it.
NOTE: The dhikr that we mentioned above for reciting between the extra Takbirat, it isn’t mandatory. Meaning, if one was to recite other adhkar it is fine, likewise if anyone remained silent. But it’s definitely better to learn it and recite it.
NOTE: Reciting Surah al-A’la in the first and al-Ghashiyah in the second is also a Sunnah. If one opts for other surahs, it’s fine.
NOTE: The two Khutbahs of ‘Eid are Sunnah. One may stay back and listen if they wish or they may leave.