Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
If I intentionally corrupted a Ramadan fast, can I feed 60 people 2 meals without fasting for 2 consecutive months?
1. No. If the fast was broken in a way that requires expiation, then for who are able to fast (and being able to fast during Ramadan is a clear sign of ability) they cannot simply feed as expiation.
2. It is recommended to do one’s makeup fasts first, because they are obligatory (fard) whereas the expiation is necessary (wajib). [Durr al-Muntaqa]
From Ta`lim al-Haq:
To fast for sixty days consecutive days.
However, if a person is genuinely unable to keep these 60 fasts, for a truly valid reason, such as continuous sickness (f: based on reasonable surety, which requires either clear signs, relevant past experience, or the reporting of a qualified and upright Muslim doctor), then one has the option of choosing from one of the following four:
1. Feed sixty poor people to their fill for two meals, or
2. Feed one poor person two meals a day, for sixty days; or
3. Give sixty poor persons 3½ lbs. (approx. 1.6 kg.) of wheat or its value in cash or food grains;
4. Give to one poor person not less than 3.5 lbs. of wheat, rice or food grains, etc. or its value in cash for sixty days.
THINGS THAT MAKE BOTH MAKEUP AND EXPIATION NECESSARY (WAJIB)
(Note that this applies only to a current Ramadan fast only)
Intentionally eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner, such as smoking, without a valid reason (f: that is, deliberately, while aware) will make both qada and kaffara necessary (f: unless there is a legal excuse that wards off the necessity of expiation, such as it not being a complete offense, such as in the case of ejaculation through any means other than actual intercourse).
Applying kohl (antimony or surma) into the eye or rubbing oil on the head and then, thinking that the fast is broken, to eat and drink intentionally.
To drink any kind of medicine intentionally (when one is not seriously sick).