Al-jawab billahi at-taufeeq (the answer with Allah’s guidance)
A,1) There are two categories of Shaheed (Martyr);
a) Considered a Shaheed in this world as well as in the hereafter, which is known as Shaheed Haqeeqi.
b) Considered a Shaheed only in the hereafter and not in this world, this is known as Shaheed Hukmi.
1) Shaheed Haqeeqi (getting killed in the hands of someone else) is the -one who dies in defending his wealth, his self, his household (family) and dying in the path of Allah Ta’ala.
(Tirmidhi- Book of Blood Wit, Nisai’- Book of Battles, Abu Dawud- Book of Ettiquettes)
If a person was attacked and shot at point blank range and died instantly without benefiting from any worldly cause (medication, food, drink, etc.) then he/she will be regarded as a Shaheed in his burial proceedings. (Raddul Mukhtaar vol.2 pg.250; HM Saeed).
The instrument used to kill the person (gun, knife, etc.) does not make a difference. (Tahtaawi pg.344; Qadeemi).
The burial Ahkam (ruling) for Shaheed Haqeeqi:
A worldly Shaheed will be buried without giving him/her Ghusl and without clothing him/her in burial clothes (Kafan). His/her excess clothing (jacket, jersey, etc.) and other personal little items such as weapons, money, wallet, etc. will be removed and included in his inheritance. Only Janaaza Salaat will be performed.
If a person was found dead and it is unknown who killed him, then this person will not be regarded as a Shaheed of the first type since it cannot be established as to whether he was killed unjustly or not. If the person did not die instantly but instead, he lived on even for a few minutes, and was able to attain some type of worldly benefit from this world (medication, food, drink, etc.), then he/she will not be included in this first type.
2) Shaheed Hukmi (accidental death) is the one dies from natural disasters, or drowned, squashed by something, burnt. (Muatta Imam Malik), a person who dies in a plague, a woman who passes away due to child birth, a person who passes away in a motor car accident, etc. Diseases e.g- One who dies of cancer of the internal organs, a person who passes away due to an illness of the stomach, etc. Insha Allah, they’ll be counted from amongst the Shaheed.
The burial Ahkam (ruling) for Shaheed Hukmi:
This second type of Shaheed will be treated like a normal deceased person. He/she will be given Ghusl and be clothed in the Sunnat Kafan after which the Janaza Salaat will be performed.
(Darse Tirmidhi Vol. 5 Pg. 59,60)
A, 2) It is compulsory upon every Muslim male & female to perform the missed number of Farz and Waajib Salaat since the time one has become Baaligh (reached the age of puberty).
To be Baligh, (to be physically matured) is one of the conditions that make Salah, Sawm and Hajj compulsory. In the case of the male, it is from when the signs of puberty appear, e.g. wet dream, growing of beard, etc. If there are no signs, then from the age of 15 lunar years.
In the case of a female, it begins at menses or if there is no menses then at 15 lunar years.
One should do Taubah (repent) before doing the Qadha Salahs if one has missed Salah deliberately. If a person missed Salah due to reasons then one should just do the Qadha Salahs. (Ainul Hidayah Vol. 1 Pg. 574)
How to Perform Qadha Salah:
When making Niyyat for Qadha, It is necessary to make Niyyah for the particular Salah missed.
If one has missed a number of Salaat, then one should make Niyyat (intention) thus:
“I am performing such and such day’s Fajr or Zohar.”
If a person has missed more than one Fajr or Zohar, it will NOT be sufficient to say:
“I am performing Qadha for Fajr or Zohar.” One should say: “I am performing such and such day’s Fajr.”
If one has missed so many Farz Salaat that one does not remember the exact number of days when the Salaat was missed, then the Niyyat should be made as follows:
“Oh Allah! I am performing the first or the first Zohar Farz from those which I have missed.”
Continue doing this until satisfied that all the missed number of Salaat are performed.
And Only Allah Ta’ala Knows Best.
Moulana Qamruz Zaman