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Allah’s Actions

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Muftisays.com
as-salamu ‘alaikum shaikh,

could you please explain if Allah’s actions are created or uncreated and could you tie this in with His speech. Does His speech consist of letters and sounds or are the letters and sounds of the revealed books part of His creation? If they are from His creation then who said, for example, Alif Laam Meem? Is it really the letters and sounds of Jibreel as an expression of Allah’s eternal Kalam or did Allah literally say them?

Answer
Bismillah

Al-jawab billahi at-taufeeq (the answer with Allah’s guidance)

According to the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah belief, the pre-eternal attributes (essential and active) are essentially eight. They are the attributes of life (Hayah), power (Qudrah), knowledge (‘Ilm), speech (Kalam), hearing (Sam’), sight (Basar), will (Iradah), and bringing into being (Takween). All the *active attributes (or actions) are a subset of the eighth attribute, Takween. All these are not created.

(*Note: They are giving life (Ihya), causing death (Imata), causing growth (Inbat), developing (Inma), shaping (Taswir), Takhliq (creating), Tarziq (sustaining) and others.)

In Fiqhul Akbar it is mention that:

“He has eternally existed, and will everlastingly exist, with His names and attributes, both relating to Him and His actions.”

“As for the attributes relating to Him, they are: Life, Power, Knowledge, kalam, Hearing, Sight, and Will. As for those relating to His actions, they are: Creating, Sustenance, Originating, Making, Fashioning, and other attributes of actions.”

(Fiqhul Akbar, Chapter: The basics of Monotheism (Tawheed))

“And all of His attributes are unlike the attributes of the creation.”

“He is attributed with knowledge, which is unlike our knowledge.”

“He is attributed with Power, which is unlike our power.”

“He is attributed with Sight, which is unlike our sight.”

“He is attributed with Hearing, which is unlike our hearing.”

“Allah Ta’ala is attributed with Kalam which is unlike our speech, as it is neither by means of organs, parts, limbs, sounds, nor letters (alphabets).”

“Letters (alphabets or Sounds) are a creation. Yet Allah’s Kalam is not created.”

(Fiqhul Akbar, Chapter: Dissimilar from every creation in every respect)

“The Qur’an is the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, written on books (Masahif), preserved in the hearts, recited on the tongues, and revealed to the Prophet, Sallallahu Alaihi Wa sallam. Our utterance of the Qur’an is created, and our recitation of the Qur’an is created, but the Qur’an (as the attribute of Kalam of Allah) is not created.”

“And what Allah Ta’ala mentioned in the Qur’an about Musa and other of the prophets (Alaihimus Salam) and also about the Pharaoh and Satan, all of it is Allah’s Kalam, informing us about them. Allah’s Kalam is not created, but the speech of Musa and other creation is created. The Qur’an is the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, hence, it is not created, unlike the creation.”

“Musa, Alayhis Salam, received the Kalam of Allah Ta’ala, as Allah Ta’ala mentioned (which means) : “and Allah addressed Musa in speech.” Therefore, Allah Ta’ala was always attributed with Kalam in eternity, before willing to reveal anything to Musa. Just as Allah Ta’ala, was The Creator in eternity, even without having created anything. : “Nothing is like Him, and He is attributed with Hearing and Sight.” When Allah addressed Musa He did so with His Kalam that is an eternal attribute.”

(Fiqhul Akbar, Chapter:The Quran, the speech of Allah Ta’ala)

In ‘Aqeedatut Tahawiyah it is mentioned that:

“The Qur’an is the word of Allaah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allaah. It is not created, as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allaah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: ‘I will burn him in the Fire.’ (al-Muddaththir 74: 26) When Allaah threatens with the Fire those who say ‘This is just human speech’ (al-Muddaththir 74: 25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind.”

“Anyone who describes Allaah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings.”

(Al ‘Aqeedatut Tahawiyah)

“His attributes existed in eternity; they did not exist after being non-existent, nor were they created. Whoever says that they are created, existed after being non-existent, or is uncertain about the attributes and doubts them, is a disbeliever in Allah Ta’ala.”

(Fiqhul Akbar, Chapter: The basics of Monotheism (Tawheed))

(Imam Abu Hanifa’s Al Fiqh Al Akbar Explained)

And Only Allah Ta’ala Knows Best.

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Moulana Qamruz Zaman
London, UK

Original Source Link

This answer was collected from MuftiSays.com, based in London (UK). It is one of the fruits of Darul Uloom London. Many ‘ulama are involved in answering the Q&A on the site, including: Shaikul Hadeeth Mufti Umar Farooq Sahib, Mufti Saifur Rahman Sahib, Mufti Abdullah Patel Sahib, Maulana Qamruz Zaman Sahib, Mufti Abu Bakr Karolia Sahib.

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