Making a vow to give a certain amount of sadaqah every time one commits a sin

Q: 

  1. My question is that if a person makes a promise to Allah that every time he commits a certain sin he will give ‘x’ amount of money to charity and then commits that sin, does he have to give that money as well as kaffarah, or is that money classed as kaffarah?
  2. Secondly, is their a way to end such a promise as even though that person is trying to eradicate that sin, occasionally there are relapses, and therefore to prevent committing two sins i.e the sin itself and the breaking of the promise, could that person end this promise?

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A: 

  1. If he had verbally uttered the words that every time he commits the sin, he will give x amount of money in charity, then everytime he commits the sin, he will have to pay the kaffarah. He has the choice to give the amount of money he pledged to give as kaffarah or to discharge the kaffarah of breaking his oath. The Kaffarah for breaking the oath is that he should feed ten poor Muslims with the amount of Sadaqatul fitr as an atonement for breaking the oath. Alternatively he may cloth ten poor people with such clothing wherein Salaah can be performed. If he is unable to do this then he should fast three days consecutively with the intention of atoning for the broken oath. Besides giving the kaffarah he should sincerely repent to Allah Ta’ala for getting involved in the sin and make a firm resolve that he will not commit the sin in the future.
  2. At the time of taking the oath (nazar) if he said: “Whenever I commit the sin, I will give x amount of money”, then there is no way to end this oath (nazar). He should refrain from committing the sin. 

And Allah Ta’ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّـهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَـكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿المائدة: ٨٩﴾

ومن نذر نذرا مطلقا فعليه الوفاء لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام من نذر وسمى فعليه الوفاء بما سمى وإن علق النذر بشرط فوجد الشرط فعليه الوفاء بنفس النذر لإطلاق الحديث ولأن المعلق بشرط كالمنجز عنده وعن أبي حنيفة رحمه الله أنه رجع عنه وقال إذا قال إن فعلت كذا فعلي حجة أو صوم سنة أو صدقة ما أملكه أجزأه من ذلك كفارة يمين وهو قول محمد رحمه الله ويخرج عن العهدة بالوفاء بما سمى أيضا وهذا إذا كان شرطا لا يريد كونه لأن فيه معنى اليمين وهو المنع وهو بظاهره نذر فيتخير ويميل إلى أي الجهتين شاء بخلاف ما إذا كان شرطا يريد كونه كقوله إن شفى الله مريضي لانعدام معنى اليمين فيه وهو المنع وهذا التفصيل هو الصحيح (الهداية 2/ 483)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)