Answered by Shaykh Yūsuf Badāt
What is the criteria for sea animals to consume them as Ḥalāl or permissible by Allāh? Are all sea fish Ḥalāl or permissible by Allāh? Are sharks Ḥalāl?
Jazāk Allāh/ Thank you for your question.
Your attention to matters of permissible and non permissible foods is admirable.
According to Ḥanafī fiqh, sea animals are not permissible. They are not considered fish nor are they in the shape or form of a fish (fish family).
Shark is ḥalāl. Sharks are fish and all fish are permissible.
The Prophet (peace and blessings upon him) has stated,
“Two animals that die naturally have been permitted for us, the locust and the fish”(Bayhaqī)
The author of the famous ḥanafī text, Hidāyah, writes,
“It is not permitted to eat the creatures of the water other than fish” (Hidāyah)
The other respected schools of fiqh (Shāfʿīe, Mālikī and Ḥanbalī) do permit some sea animals as they are considered seafood. (Fiqh ʿAlā Madhāhib al Arbaʿah)
And Allāh Knows Best