Christians believe that Prophet ʿIsā (Jesus) was the son of God and was born without a human father. Please can you briefly explain the Islamic perspective on Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus).
بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
The Qurʾān repeatedly refutes this belief of Christians as it contradicts the fundamental belief of Tawḥīd, believing in the oneness and the sole sovereignty and legislative authority of Almighty Allah, who has no partners and no children. Christians view Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus), peace be upon him, as the son of God who has divine powers as part of their belief in trinity. From an Islamic perspective, Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus), peace be upon him was a great Prophet sent by Almighty Allah like Prophet Musā (Moses), Prophet Ibrāhīm (Abraham) and other Prophets, peace be upon them all. Muslims also believe that Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus), peace be upon him, was born without a father by the will and power of Almighty Allah.
The Prophet ﷺ warned his nation to avoid exaggerating in his praise in the way that the Christians exaggerated in the praise of Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus) and advised the Ummah to simply state that he is the servant and messenger of Allah (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 3445). It is this exaggeration of Christians that eventually led to their belief in his divinity and his status as the son of God whose crucifixion atoned for the sins of mankind. They could not comprehend that miracles performed by the Prophets are signs from Almighty Allah who according to his will gives them the power to perform miracles. The Qurʾān (5: 116) clearly states that Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus), peace be upon him, did not once preach about his divinity. Thus, to believe in trinity is a form of major shirk (attesting partners to Allah) which is the greatest of sins.
For further information please refer to: What is Christianity? by Mufti Muḥammad Taqī Uthmānī (b. 1362/1943 – ) and Taqwiyah al-Imān (Strengthening of the Faith) by Shāh Ismāʿīl Shahīd (d. 1246/1831).
Allah knows best
5 Rabīʿ al-Thānī 1428 / 22 April 2007