What is the origin of the Takbeeraat Tashreek?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DarulIftaBirmingham


Answered by: Maulana Abdul Muktader


Question:


I was wondering what is the origin of the takbeers recited on Eid day prior to the Eid prayer? What wording of this takbeer has been narrated from the Prophet (PBUH)


Also, what is the origin of the Takbeeraat Tashreek?


Answer:


In The Name Of Allah, The Most-Merciful, The Most Kind


The days of Hajj are very important and virtuous. So important that Allah ﷻ instructs us to remember and glorify him in many places in the Qurān. I would firstly cite some passages from the Qurān to prove that the Tabīrāt At-Tashrīq is originally an instruction from Allah:


 


وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ – 2:203


“Recite the name of Allah during the given number of days”


Ibn kathīr mentions in his exegesis I’krimah said, “Recite the name of Allah during the given number of days” means to glorify in the days of  At-Tashrīq after the obligatory prayers.[1]


 


وَأَذِّن فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ – 22:27


لِّيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ ۖ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ – 22:28


“And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass -That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals. So eat of them and feed the miserable and poor.”


 


To mention the name of Allah on the known is to remember him for that which he has provided for them of animals and that is the sacrificial animals. The days of sacrifice are Eid day and two days after it.[2]


 


The second point is that the Tabīrāt At-Tashrīq is recited prior to the Eid prayer. The companions of the Prophet ﷺ differed in regards to the initiation of the Tabīrāt and its ending. The elder companions such as Umar, Ali, Abdullah Ibn Masū’d and Ā’isha (May Allah be pleased with them all) have agreed upon the initiation at salātul-Fajr on the day of Arafah.[3]


 


The last point to mention is the wording of the Tabīrāt, Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud used to with these words:


الله أكبر الله أكبر ، لا إله إلا الله، والله أكبر الله أكبر ،  لله الحمد [4]


“Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no god but Allah, Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest, for Allah is all praise.”


 


Only Allah knows best


Written by Maulana Abdul Muktader


Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah


Darul Ifta Birmingham



[1] تفسير القرآن العظيم لابن كثير ج.١ ص٣٢٨ ط.دار الأرقم بيروت – وقال عكرمة  وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ  ، يعني التكبير أيام التشريق بعد الصلوات المكتوبات: الله أكبر الله أكبر .


[2] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع للإمام الكاساني ج.٢ ص.١٣ ط.دار الكتب العلمية بيروت – وذكر في الأيام المعلومات الذكر على ما رزقهم من بهيمة الأنعام وهي الذبائح وأيام الذبائح يوم النحر ويومان بعده .


[3] المرجع السابق – وأما وقت التكبيرات فقد اختلف الصحابة – رضي الله عنهم – في ابتداء وقت التكبيرات انتهائه، اتفق شيوخ الصحابة نحو عمر، وعلي، وعبد الله بن مسعود، وعائشة – رضي الله عنهم – على البداية بصلاة الفجر من يوم عرفة وبه أخذ علماؤنا في ظاهر الرواية.


[4] نصب الراية لأحاديث الهداية للزيلعي ج.١ ص٤٧٣ ط. دار ابن حزم – حدثنا أبو الأحوص عن أبي إسحاق عن أبي الأسود قال: كان عبد الله يكبر من صلاة الفجر يوم عرفة إلى صلاة العصر من يوم النحر يقول ((الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله والله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد))


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