Answered by Molana Ishaaq Hussain
1) If the imam is beardless, will the people sinful if they remain quiet?
2) How the khilal of the beard is done during wudhu?
3) How many times should the khilal be done according to the Sunnah?
4) Is it makrooh tanzeeehi or tahreemi to pluck the white or grey hair
from the beard or hair?
In a hadeeth narrated by Saaiduna Ibn Umar , that the Prophet of Allah said ‘Oppose the mushrikeens (idol worshippers), lengthen your beards and cut your moustache’. (Sahih Bukhari p.875 v.2)
From this hadeeth it is clearly evident that keeping the beard is a sign of being a Muslim and not trimming the moustache is a sign of an idol worshipper. (Wujub i’fa il-Lihyah p.26)
The shaving of the beard is haram according to all four Imams. Imam Shafi in Kitabul-Umm has said it is haram to shave the beard. Imam Malik has said that to shave the beard is haram and to trim it in such a manner that it changes ones natural facial features is haram. Imam Ahmad in Sharul-Mugni has said it is haraam. Finally, Imam Haskafi in Durr Muhktar has said, “Shaving the beard is haram upon the man”. (Wujub I’fa Lihyah p.16)
From the above we realise how important it is to keep a beard and how severe it is to shave the beard. It must be noted that if a person’s beard does not grow then he will not be sinful because the matter is out of his hands., however, for that person whose beard does grow, yet he shaves it, then such a person will be sinful. To pray salah behind such a person will be Makrooh, however ones salah will be considered valid. (Fatawah Darul Uloom Deoband p 73 v 3)
With regards to your question, the followers will not be considered sinful if such a person leads salah, however they should encourage him to keep a beared (if he shaves).
Describing the Muslims in the Holy Quran, Allah Ta’ala mentions.
“You are the best of nations that have been taken out of the people, you instruct people to do good and you forbid them from evil and you believe in Allah…. (Surah Al Imran)
Sayyidna Abu Saeed Khudri narrates that he heard the Prophet of Allah say, “ whoever from amongst you sees something bad then he should change it with his hand (i.e stop that bad action with his hand), if he is not capable then (he should change it) with his tongue (i.e say something that would cause it to stop) and if the is not capable of doing this then with his heart and that is the lowest state of Imaan.” (Sahih Muslim p 50 v 1)
Answer 2 and 3
Khilal literally means to pass wet fingers. The khilal of the beard is from amongst the sunnah acts of Wudhu. (Mukhtasar Qudoori p 3)
Sayyidna Hassan Ibn Bilal said that he saw Sayyidna Ammar Ibn Yasir perform ablution. He ran his fingers through his beard, so Hassan asked him “do you interwine your beard?” Ammar said, “Why should I not do it when I did see the Prophet of Allah run his fingers through his beard. (Sunan Tirmidhi p 14 v 1)
Sayyidna Anas narrates that when the Prophet of Allah would make Wudhu, he would get a handful of water with which he would use to make Khilal of his beard and he would say, “ this is what I have been ordered to do by my lord” (Sunan Abu Dawud p 42 v 1)
The Khilal of the beard should be done after washing ones face in Wudhu. It is Sunnah to do Khilal once. This is what we understand from the above Hadeeth. (Fatawah Darul Uloom Deoband p.103 v.1)
Generally speaking classical scholars are of the view that plucking the white hair in ones hair and beard is prohibited when it is done as a source of beautification.
This is due to those Ahadeeth where the Prophet of Allah has showed detestability towards the plucking of white hair.
Sayyidna Amr Ibn Shuaib narrates from his father who narrates from his grandfather that the Prophet of Allah forbade plucking out grey hair, saying, “it is the light of the muslim.” (Sunan Tirmidhi p 109 v 2)
Sayyidna Anas Ibn Malik says, “ it is Makrooh for a man to pluck his white hairs out of his hair and beard … (Sahih Muslim p 259 v 2)
The above Ahadeeth means that having white hair is both beneficial in this world aswell as the hereafter. With regards to this world it is a sign of maturity and a source of respect. As for the next life , white hair will be a means of light on the day of judgement for a believer and a saviour from the fire of hell.(see Tufatul Ahwazi p 113 v 8)
Imam Nawawi in his commentary of Sahih Muslim says, “It is agreed upon that it is Makrooh to pluck out the white hairs from ones hair and beard. He also says, “this is what our companions say i.e Shafiee scholars, and this is also what the Scholars of the Maliki school of thought say that it is Makrooh and not Haraam. (Sharh Nawawi, also see Takmila Fathul Mulhim p 327 v4, Tuhfatul Lamiee p 575 v 6)
In the Hanafi Fiqh, it is also mentiond that it is Makrooh to pluck the white hairs from the beard and hair when it is done as a source of Beutification. (Fatawah Hindiyyah p 155 v 10)
It is mentioned in Durrul Mukhtar (p.407 v.6) that there is nothing wrong in plucking the white hairs if it is not done out of beautification.
This means that if it is done for medical purposes or out of need it will be permissible to pluck out the white hairs etc, but strictly speaking, plucking out the white hairs is generally done out of beautification, and to hide one’s old age. Therefore, scholars say it is Makrooh (Tanzeehi ) to pluck out the white hairs. (See Tuhfatul Lamiee of Mufti Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (DB) p 575 v 6)
Only Allah Knows Best
Written by Molana Ishaaq Hussain
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham.