Can I go to madrasa to learn Quran and Hadith without the permission of my parents?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
We are pleased to hear that you have the zeal to seek knowledge of Deen. There are numerous Ahadith stating the virtues of a person who goes out to seek knowledge. The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam has mentioned:
مَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقًا يَطْلُبُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَهل اللَّهُ بِهِ طَرِيقًا مِنْ طُرُقِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَتَضَعُ أَجْنِحَتَهَا رِضًا لِطَالِبِ الْعِلْمِ، وَإِنَّ الْعَالِمَ لَيَسْتَغْفِرُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ، وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ، وَالْحِيتَانُ فِي جَوْفِ الْمَاءِ، وَإِنَّ فَضْلَ الْعَالِمِ عَلَى الْعَابِدِ، كَفَضْلِ الْقَمَرِ لَيْلَةَ الْبَدْرِ عَلَى سَائِرِ الْكَوَاكِبِ، وَإِنَّ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَرَثَةُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ، وَإِنَّ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ لَمْ يُوَرِّثُوا دِينَارًا، وَلَا دِرْهَمًا وَرَّثُوا الْعِلْمَ، فَمَنْ أَخَذَهُ أَخَذَ بِحَظٍّ وَافِر
“Whosoever traverses a path of knowledge, Allah will ease his path to Jannah. And the angles happily spread their wings for the one seeking knowledge. And every creation in the skies and the earth seek forgiveness for the seeker of knowledge including the fishes in the ocean. The virtue of a scholar over a worshipper is like that of a full moon on the night of 14th over the rest of the stars. And the scholars are the heirs of the Prophets. And the Prophets do not leave behind any wealth except for knowledge. Whosoever inherits from it has inherited a great portion. 
It is Fardh upon every muslim to seek enough knowledge through which he is able to fulfill the obligatory acts of Deen. If you do not posses general knowledge of Deen, then it is your duty to do whatever it takes to learn the basics of Deen. The obligatory acts of Deen requires you to learn:
1. How to perform Salah
2. Necessary acts for the validity of fasting in the month of Ramadan
3. How to calculate Zakah
4. How to perform Hajj
You may consult your parents and tell them about your intentions of learning the Deen of Allah. With all respect to your parents, you may try convincing them by expressing the importance of seeking knowledge. Perhaps, they will understand your concerns.
However, it is possible your parents are not allowing you to study in a madrassa due their financial status or that they are dependent on you. If you are earning on your own and your parents are in need of your support while there is no one else to support them, it is necessary for you to stay with them. You may try attending classes at a local Maktab.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Abdul Hannan Nizami,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.
 (سنن أبي داود، ج3ص317، المكتبة العصرية)
(Sunan Abi Dawood, Vol.3 Pg.317, Al-Maktabah Al-Asriyyah)
This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.