let us take the last word of surah Faatiha. In India almost every Imam recites it as Zaalleen. Whereas i have heard arabs pronounce it as Daalleen. Could you please let me know how this word is pronounced, i mean is it pronounced with a ‘D’ like the arabs do or with a ‘Z’ like its done here in india. Honestly i think arabic is the language of the arabs and there pronounciation is correct. I know it would be difficult for you to explain me this in writing because pronounciataion is best learned by hearing someone, but hear almost everyone recites it with a ‘z'(though there are exceptions here also but that is almost negligible). I recently enquired with the muazzin(who is a product of darul uloom- deoband India) of our mosque on the pronounciation of the word Zalleen/dalleen. He said it should be pronounced Zalleen. He said the word “Za” should be prounced in such a way that the tongue should touch the double teeths(the ones towards the end of our jaw but not necessarily the last one.A person has many double teeths on either side) of our jaw. Is he correct. Please clarify my doubt as somewhere i see people say dalleen and somewhere zalleen. THe muazzin furthure said that if a person cannot control his tonque to pronounce Zalleen he may read it as Dalleen. In short he said that the correct pronounciation is Zalleen” and if one cannot produce it he can read the alphabet as “Da” instead of “Za”.
The most difficult letter to pronounce in the Arabic alphabet is the letter ?dhaad?. The reason for this is that more effort and concentration is required when pronouncing this letter in comparison to other letters. Other letters are pronounced very easily from their places of origination, however, for the letter ?dhaad?, the tongue has to be positioned in a specific manner, etc. for it to be pronounced.
In the past and upto today, many people have recited the letter ?Dhaad? in Surah Faatiha and other places in many incorrect ways, e.g. some recited it as a ?zhaal?, some as ?daal? also a full mouth ?daal?, some as ?zwaa?, etc. All these methods are totally incorrect.
Before explaining the correct method of pronounciation, a few point should be understood
1. Place of origination of ?Dhaad? in the mouth is when the side of the tongue touches roots of the molars and pre-molars.
2. Place of origination of ?Zwa? in the mouth is when the tip of the tongue touches the edge of the top two front teeth.
3. Place of origination of ?Daal? in the mouth is when the tip of the tongue touches the roots of the top two front teeth.
From the above, it is understood that each of these letters are different from each other, and to read anyone in place of the other is totally incorrect and in some cases may change the meaning which will lead to nullifying one?s Salaat.
The correct way of pronouncing the letter ?Dhaad? is to put the side of the tongue at roots of the molars and pre-molars. However, while pronouncing it, the tip of the tongue should not touch the edge of the front teeth. So, it is recited like a zwa and wor, should you put the side of the tongue very hard on the roots of the molars and pre-molars so that it is not recited like a daal. It should be in between a daal and zwa.
and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
Qari Ismail Abdul-Aziz
FACULTY OF SCIENCES OF THE QUR?AAN AND RECITATION
CHECKED AND APPROVED: Mufti Ebrahim Desai