What is the hukm of ladies going to Masjid and why?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

What is the hukm of ladies going to Masjid and why?

Some Ulama mention that because of Fitna it is not permissible. If this is the case then why is it permissible for them to go school, university, go to malls ladies Ta’leem etc. etc.

Why is it that Umar R.A prevented his own wife alone despite being Ameerul Mumineen and having the right to prevent the whole Ummah?

Aisha R.A said ( to the effect )If Nabi S.AW. was alive he and saw the fitna he would have prohibited it .

But now Nabi (SAW) was not alive so therefore did not prohibit it so it should be permissible

For women to read namaaz at home is definitely better but why do our Ulama say its not permissible to go masjid? Why don’t we also say that its not permissble for them to go universities ladies taleem etc.?

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

At the outset, it is important to point out the place of women in an ISLAMIC society.  Allah Ta’ala has created mankind and He alone knows what is best for mankind.  In today’s time people have raised the slogans of women’s rights and gender equality.  These slogans might seem true to those who see the role of women as same as men.  In Islam, our understanding is that Allah has created men and women differently and both have different roles which are complimentary to each other.  Allah has kept it in the nature of man to be brave, bold, and take responsibility over the family’s affairs while it is in the nature of women to have modesty, gentleness, and softness. Shari’a has stipulated the roles for each according to their nature.  Men are responsible for earning an income, providing shelter, and security for his family.  Shari’a understands the temperament of women and caters for it.  Therefore, it is not required from her to leave her house and step into this immodest world to earn her own living or provide shelter for herself. 

At the same time, Shari’a does not prevent women from earning her own income, on condition that no laws of Shari’a are violated.

It is clear from this that it is a general rule to remain in the confines of her home based on the feminine nature of women.  Shari’a has also considered circumstances based on need and necessity. 

In view of the fitna and immoralities of the time, a woman should not attend the masjid.  Shari’a has not made it compulsory upon her to perform salat with congregation.  She could perform salat be herself.  There is no compelling need for her to attend the masjid.  There is no need to bend this rule as in the case of a woman being put in an unwilling situation to earn an income.

 

In the time of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) women had permission to perform their salat, but Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) also expressed that it is better for women to perform salat at home instead of the masjid.

عن عمته أم حميد امرأة أبى حميد الساعدى أنها جاءت إلى النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت يا رسول الله إنى أحب الصلاة معك قال قد علمت أنك تحبين الصلاة معى وصلاتك فى بيتك خير لك من صلاتك فى حجرتك وصلاتك فى حجرتك خير من صلاتك فى دارك وصلاتك فى دارك خير لك من صلاتك فى مسجد قومك وصلاتك فى مسجد قومك خير لك من صلاتك فى مسجدى قال فأمرت فبنى لها مسجد فى أقصى شىء من بيتها وأظلمه فكانت تصلى فيه حتى لقيت الله عز وجل (مسند احمد)

 

Umm Humayd, the wife of Abu Humayd, narrates that she went to Nabi (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) and said, “O Rusulullah, I wish to perform salat with you.”  Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “I know well that you wish to perform salat with me.  However, the salat you perform in your room is better than perform it in your flat, and the salat performed in your flat is better than it performed in the building, and the salat perform in the building is better than it performed in the local masjid, and the salat performed in the local masjid is better than it performed in my masjid.  The narrator says that she ordered that a prayer area be build for her in the farthest and darkest corner of the house and she performed her salat there until she met her Lord.

There is no doubt that in the era of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) women were permitted to come to the masjid to perform their salat.  This was due to the fact that Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) was alive and would daily teach new injunctions of Shari’a.  The situation changed after the demise of Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam).  ‘Aisha (Radhiyallahu Anha) states:

عن عمرة بنت عبد الرحمن أنها سمعت عائشة زوج النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم تقول لو أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى ما أحدث النساء لمنعهن المسجد كما منعت نساء بنى إسرائيل قال فقلت لعمرة أنساء بنى إسرائيل منعن المسجد قالت نعم (صحيح مسلم)

Amrah bint Abdur Rahman narrates that she heard ‘Aisha (Radhiyallahu Anhu) the wife of Nabi (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) say, “If Rasulullah (Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam) were to see the condition of the women (of today), he would have verily prevented them from coming to the masjid how The Israelites women were preventing from coming to their place of worship.  The narrators say, “I asked Amrah, were the Israilites women prevented form coming to the masjid?” She replied, “Yes”.  (Sahih Muslim)

More than 1400 years have passed by and the fitnas have increased.  Immodesty, intermingling of the sexes, crime, etc are prevalent in our societies.

It is not necessary for women to perform her salat in the masjid, but it is wajib to abstain from fitna.  In order to abstain from fitna, it will be makrooh for women to go to the masjid, whether it be for the daily the salat, Jumma’, Eid, taleem, or to listen to a lecture.

Al-Durr al-Mukhtar (1:566) H.M. Saeed Company

( ويكره حضورهن الجماعة ) ولو لجمعة وعيد ووعظ ( مطلقا ) ولو عجوزا ليلا ( على المذهب ) المفتى به لفساد الزمان ، – الدر المختار

If a woman has to go the masjid for a genuine reason, e.g. the family is out on the road and need to perform salah, then it will not be makrooh for her to perform salah in the masjid, as this was done out of necessity.

A woman can perform salah at home without any decrease in the rewards.  In fact, as stated above, it is more virtuous to perform at home.  If it was possible for women to acquire knowledge at home without leaving her house on the same level as the university, then the analogy would have been correct.  Nevertheless, if she does not adopt shar’ee purdah and there is a great risk of fitna, then it will not be permissible for her to go to university, shopping centers, and other places as well.

Fatawa Rahimiyya (6/151) Darul Ishaat

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Ml. Ehzaz Ajmeri,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

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