Ibaadaah without intention

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

1. If there is a Muslim person that fasts during the month of Ramadan, but not out of fear of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala (SWT) (e.g., having to explain on the Day of Resurrection), but, rather, because they have a desire to obtain benefits of fasting (e.g., weight management, fat loss, lower blood pressure, etc.) is that considered makruh (i.e., disapproved)? 

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2. Consider this scenario. A Muslim person offers salat, but not out of fear of Allah SWT, but, rather, because they like the calmness and relaxation it gives them out of their day, and they like the peace of mind it brings. Since their motivation for observing salat is not out of fear of Allah SWT, however, but out of their own self-interests, is this considered makruh (disapproved)? 

Any insight about these matters that you might have would be greatly appreciated.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

If one intended to worship Allah by performing Salaah and fasting, then the Salaah and fast will be valid. [i]  

If one did not intend to worship Allah and fast and perform Salaah to express submission to Allah, but rather to attain other benefits, that is not ibadah (submission and worshipping Allah).

However, if one intended to fast and perform Salaah to worship Allah, he will attain the benefits attached to the Salaah and fasting also without intending such benefits.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad IV Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

_______


[i] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 40) 

وَلِأَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ عِبَادَةٌ مَقْصُودَةٌ فَلَا تَتَأَدَّى بِدُونِ النِّيَّةِ كَالصَّوْمِ وَالصَّلَاةِ

 

الأشباه والنظائر لابن نجيم (ص:61) 

الْقَاعِدَةُ الْأُولَى : لَا ثَوَابَ إلَّا بِالنِّيَّةِ

صَرَّحَ بِهِ الْمَشَايِخُ فِي مَوَاضِعَ مِنْ الْفِقْهِ أَوَّلُهَا فِي الْوُضُوءِ ، سَوَاءٌ قُلْنَا إنَّهَا شَرْطُ الصِّحَّةِ كَمَا فِي الصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصَّوْمِ وَالْحَجِّ أَوْ لَا كَمَا فِي الْوُضُوءِ وَالْغُسْلِ

وَعَلَى هَذَا قَرَّرُوا حَدِيثَ { إنَّمَا الْأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ } أَنَّهُ مِنْ بَابِ الْمُقْتَضَى ، إذْ لَا يَصِحُّ بِدُونِ التَّقْدِيرِ لِكَثْرَةِ وُجُودِ الْأَعْمَالِ بِدُونِهَا ، فَقَدَّرُوا مُضَافًا أَيْ حُكْمَ الْأَعْمَالِ

وَهُوَ نَوْعَانِ أُخْرَوِيٌّ ، وَهُوَ الثَّوَابُ وَاسْتِحْقَاقُ الْعِقَابِ ،وَدُنْيَوِيٌّ ، وَهُوَ الصِّحَّةُ وَالْفَسَادُ

وَقَدْ أُرِيدَ الْأُخْرَوِيُّ بِالْإِجْمَاعِ ، لِلْإِجْمَاعِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَا ثَوَابَ وَلَا عِقَابَ إلَّا بِالنِّيَّةِ ، فَانْتَفَى الْآخَرُ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُرَادًا ،إمَّا لِأَنَّهُ مُشْتَرَكٌ وَلَا عُمُومَ لَهُ ، أَوْ لِانْدِفَاعِ الضَّرُورَةِ بِهِ مِنْ صِحَّةِ الْكَلَامِ بِهِ ، فَلَا حَاجَةَ إلَى الْآخَرِ

 

السعاية في كشف ما في شرح الوقاية (ص: 262) 

ويؤيده ان الطهارة ليس عبادة مقصودة بل المقصود من شرعها التوسل بها الى الصلوة وما في معناها

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