If one becomes a traveler [musafir] after dawn does he have to fast that day in Ramadan?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

A’salaam. 1) My wife travels to work everyday and travel 104km to reach her work. She leave the house at 7am and return home 6pm. a) Does she have to read Qasar Prayer? b) Is she required to fast? (we are located in Canada, Sehri time is approx 4am and iftar is 9PM) 2) On the weekend we go visit our parents who live 94km away. We usually go on Friday afternoon and return back the next day Sat evening. While i am there do i pray Qasr Prayer? how about fasting? Thank you

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Note:  The distances mentioned in the inquiry: 104km (64.6 miles) and 94km (58.41 miles) make one a traveler in Islamic law [musafir] unless one does not leave the limits of his own city or town. This is because one will not be considered a traveler [musafir] in his own city or town, no matter how far he travels. 

The rulings below are based on the understanding that when your wife goes to work or when you visit your parents, both of these places are located in another city or town. 

1.) Yes, she will have to fast because she will still be at home and will not be a traveler at dawn (when the fast begins at 4am). However, if she breaks her fast at work due to difficulties incurred in traveling there is no atonement [kaffarah] on her. She will just make up that specific fast [qada]. [i][ii]

2.) Yes, she will have to pray qasr at work. 

3.) Yes, both of you will pray qasr when you travel to your parent’s home. [iii]

4.) Yes, both of you will fast on Friday because of the reason mentioned in #1. As for Saturday, you have the option not to fast and you will make this up later and there is no sin in this. 

Nowadays, due to modern transportation, traveling relatively short distances (such as 94km and 104km) is easy. As a result, if one does not face undue difficulties then it will be better to fast since one will be deprived of the virtue of fasting in the month of Ramadan. [iv][v]

Addendum:
*If a woman is traveling while in her menstrual period
[haidh] and her haidh finishes while 55 miles or more remain in the journey, she will be considered a traveler. However, if less than 55 miles remain (from the time when her haidh finishes) she will not be considered a traveler and will not perform qasr. She will also not have the option to postpone her fasts since she is not considered a traveler [musafir]. [vi]

*It is not permissible for a woman to travel the distance of safar (55 miles) without a mahram.

Mufti Sohail ibn Arif,
Assistant Mufti, Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

الباب الخامس في الأعذار التي تبيح الإفطار) . (منها السفر) الذي يبيح الفطر وهو ليس بعذر في اليوم الذي) [i]

 أنشأ السفر فيه كذا في الغياثية. فلو سافر نهارا لا يباح له الفطر في ذلك اليوم، وإن أفطر لا كفارة عليه بخلاف ما لو أفطر ثم سافر كذا في محيط السرخسي،

 الفتاوى الهندية، ١/ ٢٠٦ 

 

الصائم إذا سافر نهاراً لا ينبغي له أن يفطر لأن الوجوب كان ثابتاً فلا يسقط بفعل باشره باختياره [ii]

 فتاوى قاضيخان، ١/ ١٠٠ 

 

أقل مسافة تتغير فيها الأحكام مسيرة ثلاثة أيام، كذا في التبيين، هو الصحيح…قال محمد – رحمه الله تعالى [iii]

 يقصر حين يخرج من مصره ويخلف دور المصر، كذا في المحيط وفي الغياثية هو المختار وعليه الفتوى، كذا في التتارخانية الصحيح ما ذكر أنه يعتبر مجاوزة عمران المصر لا غير إلا إذا كان ثمة قرية أو قرى متصلة بربض المصر فحينئذ تعتبر مجاوزة القرى بخلاف القرية التي تكون متصلة بفناء المصر فإنه يقصر الصلاة وإن لم يجاوز تلك القرية، كذا في المحيط.
وكذا إذا عاد من سفره إلى مصره لم يتم حتى يدخل العمران ولا يصير مسافرا بالنية حتى يخرج ويصير مقيما بمجرد النية، كذا في محيط السرخسي
الفتاوى الهندية، ١/ ١٣٨ – ١٣٩ 

 

[iv] بهشتي زيور، حصة ٣، ص. ١٨ تعميري كتب خانة 

[v] فتاوى عثماني، ٢/ ١٧٣ – ١٧٤

[vi] بهشتي زيور، حصة ٢، ص. ٤٩ تعميري كتب خانة


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