Inheritance and control dispute

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

Hazrat Mufti Saheb Damat Barakatuhu.

Please advise on the following.

1. There are 3 brothers and 1 sister who Inherited from a diseased estate is it correct that it will be devided in 7 portions 2 each for the 3 brothers and 1 for the sister?

2. The sister is 80 years old and doesn’t really understand what is going on and has 2 sons and 4 daughters who was not present to see or informed as to what amount was received and how it was distributed.

3. The sister decided to take her portion and invest it into a property to which the 1 brother and nephew agreed but with conditions such as

A. They will be in control of the property despite the sister has a Son that is upright and capable of handling the mother’s affairs.

B. They will find a tenant and collect rentals and not the Son whilst the sister does not agree but is forced to do so.

2. As written in the previous question till now non of us brothers nor sisters are aware of the amount that was and supposed to have been received is this correct.

Please advise urgently

جزاكم الله خيرا

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 


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• The Shar’i ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.

• Darul Iftaa bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.

• This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of the Darul Iftaa.

We have been advised that the deceased was survived by:

–         Three brothers

–         One sister

 

ACCORDINGLY, THE ESTATE WILL BE DIVIDED INTO 7 SHARES AS FOLLOWS:

 







BENEFICIARY

SHARE

PERCENTAGE

Brother [1]

2

28.57%

Brother [2]

2

28.57%

Brother [3]

2

28.57%

Sister

1

14.29%

TOTAL

7

100%

 

NOTE: The above percentage figures have been rounded up to two decimal places.

According to the Islamic Law of Succession and Inheritance, distribution of an estate will only commence after funeral expenses, debts (including legal costs) and bequests (if any) made to NON-HEIRS – [which will not exceed one-third (1/3) of the Estate after debts and funeral expenses have been settled.] have been paid out. Thereafter, ALL assets form part of the Net Estate and will have to be distributed according to the Islamic Law of Succession and Inheritance.

 

The sister has a full right to know the amounts and assets left by the deceased. She has a right to demand transparency in the whole issue. There are stern warnings in the Ahadith in regards to not giving the rightful share to the rightful heirs.

Since the sister is a rightful heir, she is entitled to her property/assets she owns and thus can do whatever she wants with it if she is sane and mentally alert. She may also appoint whomsoever she wishes to be in control of her properties. The brothers and nephews have no right to hold back and assume control in her property. [1] [2] 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Safwaan Ibn Ml Ahmed Ibn Ibrahim

Student Darul Iftaa
Limbe, Malawi 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

___________________________

[1] اللباب في شرح الكتاب (ص: 166) – دار الكتاب العربي

كتاب الحجر.

– الأسباب الموجبة للحجر ثلاثةٌ: الصغر، والرق، والجنون، ولا يجوز تصرف الصغير إلا بإذن وليه، ولا تصرف العبد إلا بإذن سيده، ولا يجوز تصرف المجنون المغلوب على عقله بحال،

ومن باع من هؤلاء شيئاً أو اشتراه وهو يعقل البيع ويقصده فالولي بالخيار: إن شاء أجازه إذا كان فيه مصلحةٌ، وإن شاء فسخه.

وهذه المعاني الثلاثة توجب الحجر في الأقوال دون الأفعال؛ فالصبي والمجنون لا تصح عقودهما، ولا إقرارهما، ولا يقع طلاقهما ولا عتاقهما، وإن أتلفا شيئاً لزمهما ضمانه. وأما العبد فأقواله نافذةٌ في حق نفسه غير نافذةٍ في حق مولاه.

 

[2] درر الحكام شرح مجلة الأحكام – ط. العلمية (3/ 176) 

– الْمَادَّةُ (1162) – (يَمْلِكُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْحِصَصِ حِصَّتَهُ مُسْتَقِلًّا بَعْدَ الْقِسْمَةِ وَلَا يَبْقَى عَلَاقَةٌ لِأَحَدِهِمْ فِي حِصَّةِ الْآخَرِ بَعْدُ. وَيَتَصَرَّفُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ فِي حِصَّتِهِ كَيْفَمَا يَشَاءُ…

 

مجلة الأحكام العدلية (ص: 230) – نور محمد، كارخانه تجارتِ كتب، آرام باغ، كراتشي

الْفَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ: فِيْ بَيَانِ بَعْضِ قَوَاعِدِ أَحْكَامِ الْأَمْلَاكِ

الْمَادَّةُ (1192) كُلٌّ يَتَصَرَّفُ فِي مِلْكِهِ كَيْفَمَا شَاءَ.

 

درر الحكام شرح مجلة الأحكام – ط. العلمية (3/ 210) 

(فِي بَيَانِ بَعْضِ الْقَوَاعِدِ الْمُتَعَلِّقَةِ بِأَحْكَامِ الْأَمْلَاكِ). الْمَادَّةُ (1192) – (كُلٌّ يَتَصَرَّفُ فِي مِلْكِهِ كَيْفَمَا شَاءَ.

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (4/ 502) – دار الفكر-بيروت

وفي التلويح أيضا من بحث القضاء: والتحقيق أن المنفعة ملك لا مال؛ لأن الملك ما من شأنه أن يتصرف فيه

بوصف الاختصاص، والمال ما من شأنه أن يدخر للانتفاع وقت الحاجة،

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 51) – دار الفكر-بيروت

لأن الملك ما من شأنه أن يتصرف فيه بوصف الاختصاص كما في التلويح،